Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine thin films: chemical reaction and molecular orientation
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The chemical transformation of the polar chloroaluminum phthalocyanine, AlClPc, to μ-(oxo)bis(phthalocyaninato)aluminum(III), (PcAl)2O, in thin films on indium tin oxide is studied and its influence on the molecular orientation is discussed. The studies were conducted using complementary spectroscopic techniques: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed in order to identify specific vibrations and to monitor the product formation. The thin films of AlClPc were annealed in controlled environmental conditions to obtain (PcAl)2O. It is shown that the chemical transformation in the thin films can proceed only in the presence of water. The influence of the reaction and the annealing on the molecular orientation was studied with Raman spectroscopy and NEXAFS spectroscopy in total electron yield and partial electron yield modes. The comparison of the results obtained from these techniques allows the determination of the molecular orientation of the film as a function of the probing depth.
KeywordsInterface/surface analysis Thin films Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine
We thank W. Neu for technical assistance and V. Kiselev for fruitful discussions. We gratefully thank the bwGRiD project for computational resources. We also acknowledge the ANKA Angstroemquelle Karlsruhe for the provision of beam time at the WERA beamline. Financial support from the German Research Council (PE 546/5-1 and CH 132/23-1) is gratefully acknowledged.
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