Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 18, pp 5937–5952 | Cite as

Development of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of ten anticancer drugs in hospital and urban wastewaters, and its application for the screening of human metabolites assisted by information-dependent acquisition tool (IDA) in sewage samples

  • L. Ferrando-Climent
  • S. Rodriguez-Mozaz
  • D. Barceló
Original Paper

Abstract

In the present work, the development, optimization, and validation (including a whole stability study) of a fast, reliable, and comprehensive method for the analysis of ten anticancer drugs in hospital and urban wastewater is described. Extraction of these pharmaceutical compounds was performed using automated off-line solid-phase extraction followed by their determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole–linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Target compounds include nine cytotoxic agents: cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, docetaxel, paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine, tamoxifen, methotrexate, and azathioprine; and the cytotoxic quinolone, ciprofloxacin. Method detection limits (MDL) ranged from 0.8 to 24 ng/L. Levels found of cytostatic agents in the hospital and wastewater influents did not differ significantly, and therefore, hospitals cannot be considered as the primary source of this type of contaminants. All the target compounds were detected in at least one of the influent samples analyzed: Ciprofloxacin, cyclophosphamide, tamoxifen, and azathioprine were found in most of them and achieving maximum levels of 14.725, 0.201, 0.133, and 0.188 μg/L, respectively. The rest of target cancer drugs were less frequently detected and at values ranging between MDL and 0.406 μg/L. Furthermore, a feasible, useful, and advantageous approach based on information acquisition tool (information-dependent acquisition) was used for the screening of human metabolites in hospital effluents, where the hydroxy tamoxifen, endoxifen, and carboxyphosphamide were detected.

Keywords

Cytotoxic Anticancer drugs Metabolites Hospital effluent UPLC-QqLit IDA 

Supplementary material

216_2013_6794_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (167 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 167 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Ferrando-Climent
    • 1
  • S. Rodriguez-Mozaz
    • 1
  • D. Barceló
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Carrer Emili Grahit, 101Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de GironaGironaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), CSICBarcelonaSpain

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