Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 13, pp 4477–4485 | Cite as

Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements

  • Yang Zhao
  • Jianghao Sun
  • Liangli Lucy Yu
  • Pei Chen
Original Paper

Abstract

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

Fig

In the present study, HPLC and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints as well as chemometrics were applied to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements from U.S. markets in order to understand the variability of the products and to provide useful information with customers.

Keywords

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Dietary supplements Chromatographic Fingerprint Flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprint Principal component analysis 

References

  1. 1.
    Council NP (2005) Pharmacopoeia of China. Chemical Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, Mak DH, Liang SM, Ko KM (2000) Myocardial protection against ischaemiareperfusior injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented “Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood”, a compound formulation, ex vivo. Phytother Res 14:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu CX, Xiao PG (1993) An introduction to Chinese meteria medica. Peking Union Medical College and Beijing Medical University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou X, Zhao Y, Lei PH, Cai ZW, Liu H (2010) Chromatographic fingerprint study on Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn technique. J Sep Sci 33:2258–2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cai M, Zhou Y, Gesang SL, Bianba C, Ding LS (2006) Chemical fingerprint analysis of rhizomes of Gymnadenia conopsea by HPLC-DAD-MSn. J Chromatogr B 844:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xu LN, Han X, Qi Y, Xu YW, Yin LH, Peng JY, Liu KX, Sun CK (2009) Multiple compounds determination and fingerprint analysis of Lidanpaishi tablet and keli by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 633:136–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization (1991) Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine. World Health Organization, MunichGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang S, Ma HQ, Sun YJ, Qiao CD, Shao SJ, Jiang SX (2007) Fingerprint quality control of A. sinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with discriminant analysis. Talanta 72:434–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lu GH, Chan K, Liang YZ, Leung K, Chan CL, Jiang ZH, Zhao ZZ (2005) Development of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints for distinguishing Chinese angelica from related Umbelliferae herbs. J Chromatogr A 1073:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen Y, Zhu SB, Xie MY, Nie SP, Liu W, Li C, Gong XF, Wang YX (2008) Quality control and original discrimination of Ganoderma lucidum based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints and combined chemometrics methods. Anal Chim Acta 623:146–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mardia KV, Kent JT, Bibby JM (1979) Multivariate analysis. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vega M, Pardo R, Barrado E, Deban L (1998) Assesment of seasonal and polluting effects on the quality of river water by exploratory data analysis. Water Res 32:3581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kannel PR, Lee S, Kanel SR, Khan SP (2007) Chemometric application in classification and assessment of monitoring locations of an urban river system. Anal Chim Acta 582:390–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sun JH, Chen P (2011) A flow-injection mass spectrometry fingerprinting method for authentication and quality assessment of Scutellaria lateriflora-based dietary supplements. Anal Bioanal Chem 401:1577–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin LZ, He XG, Lian LZ, King W, Elliott J (1998) Liquid chromatographic–electrospray mass spectrometric study of the phthalides of A. sinensis and chemical changes of Z-ligustilide. J Chromatogr A 810:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang F, Xiao YS, Zhang FF, Xue XY, Xu Q, Liang XM (2006) High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of radix Angelica sciensis. Acta Phar Sinica 41:1078–1083Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lu XH, Zhang JJ, Zhang XX, Liang H, Zhao YY (2008) Study on biligustilides from Angelica sinensis. China J Chin Mater Med 33:2196–2201Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lao SC, Li SP, Kan KKW, Li P, Wan JB, Wang YT, Dong TTX, Tsim KWK (2004) Identification and quantification of 13 components in Angelica sinensis (Danggui) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry coupled with pressurized liquid extraction. Anal Chim Acta 526:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xue WX, Hua YL, Guo YS, Ji P, Wu HY, Wei YM (2012) Changes of composition in different parts of Angelicae sinensis based on geoherbs. J Gansu Agric Univ 47(1):149–154Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lu XH, Zhang JJ, Liang H, Zhao YY (2004) Chemical constituents of Angelica sinensis. J Chin Pharm Sci 13(1):1–3Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Song QY, Fu YB, Liu J, Zheng D, Han L, Huang XS (2011) Chemical constituents from Angelica sinensis. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs 42(10):1900–1904Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lou L, Zhu DN, Yan YQ (2005) SFE-CO2 constituents of simplified formula of Danggui Shaoyao powder in the prevention and treatment of vascular dementia. Chin Tradit Pat Med 27(11):1251–1254Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Zhao
    • 1
  • Jianghao Sun
    • 1
  • Liangli Lucy Yu
    • 2
  • Pei Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research CenterAgricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of AgricultureBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Food ScienceUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations