Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 404, Issue 5, pp 1427–1437

Resolving the problem of chromatographic overlap by 3D cross correlation (3DCC) processing of LC, MS and NMR data for characterization of complex glycan mixtures

  • Henning N. Behnken
  • Meike Fellenberg
  • Miriam P. Koetzler
  • Raffael Jirmann
  • Tim Nagel
  • Bernd Meyer
Original Paper

Abstract

Chromatographic overlap is a common problem in the analysis of complex mixtures. As a result, it is not possible to identify the components because each resulting NMR or MS spectrum contains multiple components. We introduce three-dimensional cross correlation (3DCC) that dissects NMR spectra of a mixture into spectra of the individual components without actually separating them. Correlation of peaks from MS and NMR profiles along a common LC time domain yields 3DCC NMR spectra of pure components correlated with a mass and a retention time. The method requires an LC run followed by fractionation and recording of MS and NMR spectra. The method is applicable to mixtures of any classes of molecules. Here, we demonstrate its application to a mixture of complex glycans obtained from a glycoprotein. Fourteen glycans eluting within only 3 min showed heavy overlap in the chromatographic run. 3DCC allowed their direct characterization without separation. Some of these structures from the glycoprotein bovine fibrinogen had not previously been described. The 3DCC procedure has been implemented in standard software. Actually, 3DCC can be used for any combination of separation techniques, like LC or GC, combined with two characterization methods like UV, IR, Raman, NMR or MS.

Figure

LC runs of complex mixtures often result in overlap of several analytes and prohibit thereby characterization by NMR. The new 3DCC method allows extraction of pure NMR spectra directly from mixtures by correlating NMR and MS data from an LC run.

Keywords

Glycans Cross correlation Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Mass spectrometry (MS) Deconvolution Liquid chromatography (LC) 

Abbreviations

dHex

Deoxyhexose

EDC

Extracted delta chromatogram

EIC

Extracted ion chromatogram

Fuc

Fucose

Gal

Galactose

Hex

Hexose

GlcNAc

N-Acetylglucosamine

HexNAc

N-Acetylhexosamine

Man

Mannose

PGC

Porous graphitized carbon

3DCC

Three-dimensional cross correlation

3DCCL

Three-dimensional cross correlation using least squares minimization

3DCCC

Three-dimensional cross correlation using Pearson coefficients

TIC

Total ion current

Supplementary material

216_2012_6241_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (580 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 579 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henning N. Behnken
    • 1
  • Meike Fellenberg
    • 1
  • Miriam P. Koetzler
    • 1
  • Raffael Jirmann
    • 1
  • Tim Nagel
    • 1
  • Bernd Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Organic Chemistry, Department of ChemistryUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

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