Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 2–3, pp 691–701 | Cite as

Analysis of egg-based model wall paintings by use of an innovative combined dot-ELISA and UPLC-based approach

  • Mariangela Potenza
  • Giuseppina Sabatino
  • Francesca Giambi
  • Luca Rosi
  • Anna Maria Papini
  • Luigi Dei
Original Paper


The chemical analysis of egg-based wall paintings—the mezzo fresco technique—is an interesting topic in the characterisation of organic binders. A revised procedure for a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) able to detect protein components of egg-based wall paintings is reported. In the new dot-ELISA procedure we succeeded in maximizing the staining colour by adjusting the temperature during the staining reaction. Quantification of the colour intensity by visible reflectance spectroscopy resulted in a straight line plot of protein concentration against reflectance in the wavelength range 380–780 nm. The modified dot-ELISA procedure is proposed as a semi-quantitative analytical method for characterisation of protein binders in egg-based paintings. To evaluate its performance, the method was first applied to standard samples (ovalbumin, whole egg, egg white), then to model specimens, and finally to real samples (Giotto’s wall paintings). Moreover, amino acid analysis performed by innovative ultra-performance liquid chromatography was applied both to standards and to model samples and the results were compared with those from the dot-ELISA tests. In particular, after protein hydrolysis (24 h, 114 °C, 6 mol L−1 HCl) of the samples, amino acid derivatization by use of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate enabled reproducible analysis of amino acids. This UPLC amino acid analysis was rapid and reproducible and was applied for the first time to egg-based paintings. Because the painting technique involved the use of egg-based tempera on fresh lime-based mortar, the study enabled investigation of the effect of the alkaline environment on egg-protein detection by both methods.


Model wall paintings specimens and typical dot-ELISA stains for egg proteins.


UPLC-based amino acid analysis dot-ELISA Egg-based wall paintings Cultural heritage conservation 



The authors express their gratitude to Professor Guido Botticelli, for careful preparation of the model samples and continuous exchange of opinions during the entire study, and to Dr Mirella Baldan, R. & C. Scientifica s.r.l., for fruitful discussions on the dot-ELISA tests. Thanks are due also to the Opificio delle Pietre Dure team for cooperation during study of the Giotto sample. Financial support from Università degli Studi di Firenze (Fondi d’Ateneo ex-60 %), Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze, and from Regione Toscana PAR-FAS, SICAMOR PROJECT are gratefully acknowledged. MP thanks Regione Toscana, Italy, TemArt Project European Fund for Regional Development (POR CreO FESR 2007–2013) and the Project Partner Adarte snc, for financial support.

Supplementary material

216_2012_6049_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (314 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 314 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariangela Potenza
    • 1
  • Giuseppina Sabatino
    • 2
    • 3
  • Francesca Giambi
    • 4
    • 6
  • Luca Rosi
    • 5
  • Anna Maria Papini
    • 3
    • 5
  • Luigi Dei
    • 5
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”Università degli Studi di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  2. 2.Espikem srlPratoItaly
  3. 3.Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Chimica e Biologia di Peptidi e Proteine, Polo Scientifico e TecnologicoUniversità degli Studi di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  4. 4.Consorzio Interuniversitario CSGI, c/o Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Polo Scientifico e TecnologicoUniversità degli Studi di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Polo Scientifico e TecnologicoUniversità degli Studi di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  6. 6.CNR-ICVBCFirenzeItaly

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