On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection for the determination of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in coastal marine and wastewater samples
Benzotriazoles are a group of UV absorbing compounds considered emerging contaminants that are used in different personal care products, and therefore, it is of high interest to develop sensitive and fast methods for investigating their presence in the environment. In this work, we present the development and application of a novel method based on on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of seven benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in coastal marine and wastewater samples. This process is compared with a conventional off-line SPE procedure followed by UPLC-MS/MS. The parameters affecting the performance of the sample preparation and determination processes were evaluated. The results indicate that the on-line procedure provides for better sensitivity and reproducibility and is faster and easier than the off-line procedure. The detection limits and quantification limits achieved were in the range of 0.6–4.1 ng∙L−1 and 2.1–14 ng∙L−1 and relative standard deviation between 6.2 and 10 %. The developed method was applied to coastal marine and wastewater samples from Gran Canaria Island (Spain). All of the BUVSs studied were detected in the samples from wastewater treatment plants and two were found in the seawater samples (UV P in the range of 2.8–4.4 ng∙L−1 and UV 360 between 3.6 and 5.2 ng∙L−1).
KeywordsBenzotriazole UV stabilizers On-line SPE UPLC-MS/MS Water analysis
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