Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 402, Issue 9, pp 2871–2883 | Cite as

Novel approaches to analysis of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol esters in vegetable oils

  • Eliska Moravcova
  • Lukas Vaclavik
  • Ondrej Lacina
  • Vojtech Hrbek
  • Katerina Riddellova
  • Jana Hajslova
Original Paper


A sensitive and accurate method utilizing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry based on orbitrap technology (orbitrapMS) for the analysis of nine 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) diesters in vegetable oils was developed. To remove the interfering triacylglycerols that induce strong matrix effects, a clean-up step on silica gel column was used. The quantitative analysis was performed with the use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. The lowest calibration levels estimated for the respective analytes ranged from 2 to 5 μg kg−1. Good recovery values (89–120%) and repeatability (RSD 5–9%) was obtained at spiking levels of 2 and 10 mg kg−1. As an alternative, a novel ambient desorption ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART), hyphenated with orbitrapMS, was employed for no separation, high-throughput, semi-quantitative screening of 3-MCPD diesters in samples obtained by chromatographic fractionation. Additionally, the levels of 3-MCPD diesters measured in real-life vegetable oil samples (palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil) using both methods are reported. Relatively good agreement of the data generated by U-HPLC-orbitrapMS and DART-orbitrapMS were observed. With regard to a low ionization yield achieved for 3-MCPD monoesters, the methods presented in this paper were not yet applicable for the analysis of these contaminants at the naturally occurring levels.


3-MCPD esters Vegetable oils U-HPLC-MS DART-MS 



The financial support by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (research project MSM 6046137305) and the European Commission (project PROMETHEUS, PROcess contaminants: Mitigation and Elimination Techniques for High food quality and their Evaluation Using Sensors and Simulation; FP7-KBBE-2010-4-265558) are gratefully acknowledged. The authors wish to thank Dr. Richard Stadler for providing the palm oil samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eliska Moravcova
    • 1
  • Lukas Vaclavik
    • 1
  • Ondrej Lacina
    • 1
  • Vojtech Hrbek
    • 1
  • Katerina Riddellova
    • 1
  • Jana Hajslova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Chemistry and AnalysisInstitute of Chemical Technology, PraguePrague 6Czech Republic

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