Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 403, Issue 9, pp 2471–2491 | Cite as

Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants

  • Martin Elsner
  • Maik A. Jochmann
  • Thomas B. Hofstetter
  • Daniel Hunkeler
  • Anat Bernstein
  • Torsten C. Schmidt
  • Arndt Schimmelmann
Review

Abstract

Compound-specific stable-isotope analysis (CSIA) has greatly facilitated assessment of sources and transformation processes of organic pollutants. Multielement isotope analysis is one of the most promising applications of CSIA because it even enables distinction of different transformation pathways. This review introduces the essential features of continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and highlights current challenges in environmental analysis as exemplified for the isotopes of nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, and oxygen. Strategies and recent advances to enable isotopic measurements of polar contaminants, for example pesticides or pharmaceuticals, are discussed with special emphasis on possible solutions for analysis of low concentrations of contaminants in environmental matrices. Finally, we discuss different levels of calibration and referencing and point out the urgent need for compound-specific isotope standards for gas chromatography–isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS) of organic pollutants.

Figure

Compound-specific isotope analysis of environmental contaminants: chromatographic separation is followed by online conversion to a suitable measurement gas (M) and subsequent isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Current challenges in the field concern the analysis of multiple elements (C, H, N, O, Cl) in polar compounds, at low concentrations and in the presence of matrix interferences. An urgent need exists for contaminant-specific reference materials.

Keywords

Gas chromatography-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry Isotope fractionation Groundwater contamination Pollution source Transformation pathways Isotope standard 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Elsner
    • 1
  • Maik A. Jochmann
    • 2
  • Thomas B. Hofstetter
    • 3
  • Daniel Hunkeler
    • 4
  • Anat Bernstein
    • 5
  • Torsten C. Schmidt
    • 2
  • Arndt Schimmelmann
    • 6
  1. 1.Helmholtz Zentrum MünchenInstitute of Groundwater EcologyNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Instrumental Analytical ChemistryUniversity Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  3. 3.Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and TechnologyDübendorfSwitzerland
  4. 4.University of Neuchâtel, Centre for HydrogeologyNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  5. 5.Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, Department of Environmental Hydrology and MicrobiologyBen-Gurion University of the NegevNegevIsrael
  6. 6.Department of Geological SciencesIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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