Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 402, Issue 6, pp 1993–2013

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in metabolomics

  • Martin F. Almstetter
  • Peter J. Oefner
  • Katja Dettmer


One of the major objectives in metabolomics is the identification of subtle changes in metabolite profiles as affected by genetic or environmental factors. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) hyphenated to a fast-acquisition mass spectrometer is a well-established analytical technique to study the composition of complex samples due to its enhanced separation capacity, sensitivity, peak resolution, and reproducibility. This review reports applications of GC × GC to metabolomics studies of sample of different types (biofluid, cells, tissue, bacteria, yeast, plants), and discusses its advantages and limitations.


Metabolomics Metabolite profiling Metabolic fingerprinting Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin F. Almstetter
    • 1
  • Peter J. Oefner
    • 1
  • Katja Dettmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Functional GenomicsUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

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