Direct molecule-specific glucose detection by Raman spectroscopy based on photonic crystal fiber
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This paper reports the first step toward the development of a glucose biosensor based on Raman spectroscopy and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) probe. Historically, it has been very challenging to detect glucose directly by Raman spectroscopy due to its inherently small Raman scattering cross-section. In this work, we report the first quantitative glucose Raman detection in the physiological concentration range (0–25 mM) with a low laser power (2 mW), a short integration time (30 s), and an extremely small sampling volume (∼50 nL) using the highly sensitive liquid-filled PCF probe. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate the molecular specificity of this technique in the presence of a competing sugar, such as fructose. High sensitivity, flexibility, reproducibility, low cost, small sampling volume, and in situ remote sensing capability make PCF a very powerful platform for potential glucose detection based on Raman spectroscopy.
KeywordsGlucose detection Raman spectroscopy Photonic crystal fiber Fiber sensor
We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), ECCS-0823921. Y.L. acknowledges the support of this work in part by NSF, CBET 1034222. X.Y. acknowledges financial support by the Lawrence Scholar Program at LLNL. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-JRNL-491217. We thank Profs. Bakthan Singaram and Jin Z. Zhang for helpful discussion and for offering measurement facilities. We thank Roberto Bogomolni for the d-fructose sample.
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