Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 402, Issue 3, pp 1159–1167 | Cite as

Improved sample preparation for MALDI–MSI of endogenous compounds in skin tissue sections and mapping of exogenous active compounds subsequent to ex-vivo skin penetration

  • Bernd Enthaler
  • Julia K. Pruns
  • Sonja Wessel
  • Claudius Rapp
  • Markus Fischer
  • Klaus-Peter Wittern
Original Paper

Abstract

Localization of endogenous and exogenous compounds directly in tissue sections is a challenging task in skin research. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful label-free technique that enables determination of the distribution of a large range of biomolecules directly in tissue sections. Nevertheless, its application in this field is limited in large part by the low adhesion of skin tissue sections to indium–tin oxide-coated (ITO) glass slides. For the first time corona discharge (CD) treatment was used to modify the glass slide surface for improved adhesion. Localization of endogenous cholesterol sulfate was performed directly in human skin tissue sections. A spatial resolution of approximately 30 μm was sufficient for assignment of mass signals to skin structure morphology. Furthermore, imaging of an exogenous model compound, Nile red, was performed directly in skin tissue sections after ex-vivo penetration into porcine skin, enabling determination of the pathway and depth of penetration. Finally, the ion density map of Nile red was compared with its high resolution fluorescence micrograph. This work provides new insights into the application of MALDI–MSI in skin research.

Figure

MALDI-MSI results for mapping of endogenous cholesterol sulfate (m/z 465.3) directly in human skin tissue sections with spatial resolutions of 100 μm (b) and 30 μm (d). Images are overlayed with the corresponding hematoxylin and eosin staining images, which are presented in a and c, respectively

Keywords

Mass spectrometry imaging MALDI–MSI Skin Penetration 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank A. Westphal for technical support with ESCA measurements.

References

  1. 1.
    Caprioli RM, Farmer TB, Gile J (1997) Anal Chem 69:4751–4760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burnum KE, Frappier SL (2008) Caprioli RM. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1:689–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taban IM, Altelaar AF, van der Burgt YE, McDonnell LA, Heeren RM, Fuchser J, Baykut G (2007) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 18:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murphy RC, Hankin JA, Barkley RM (2009) J Lipid Res 50 Suppl:S317–322Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fuchs B, Suss R, Schiller J (2010) Prog Lipid Res 50:132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vrkoslav V, Muck A, Cvacka J, Svatos A (2010) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 21:220–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cornett DS, Frappier SL, Caprioli RM (2008) Anal Chem 80:5648–5653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drexler DM, Tannehill-Gregg SH, Wang L, Brock BJ (2011) J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 63:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lemaire R, Menguellet SA, Stauber J, Marchaudon V, Lucot JP, Collinet P, Farine MO, Vinatier D, Day R, Ducoroy P, Salzet M, Fournier I (2007) J Proteome Res 6:4127–4134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kimura Y, Tsutsumi K, Sugiura Y, Setou M (2009) Med Mol Morphol 42:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gustafsson JO, Oehler MK, Ruszkiewicz A, McColl SR, Hoffmann P (2011) Int J Mol Sci 12:773–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schwamborn K, Krieg RC, Jirak P, Ott G, Knuchel R, Rosenwald A, Wellmann A (2010) J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 136:1651–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marshall P, Toteu-Djomte V, Bareille P, Perry H, Brown G, Baumert M, Biggadike K (2010) Anal Chem 82:7787–7794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prideaux B, Atkinson SJ, Carolan VA, Morton J, Clench MR (2007) Int J Mass Spectrom 260:243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hart PJ, Francese S, Claude E, Woodroofe MN, Clench MR (2011) Anal Bioanal Chem 401:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hsieh Y, Li F, Korfmacher WA (2010) Methods Mol Biol 656:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hsieh Y, Chen J, Korfmacher WA (2007) J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 55:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reyzer ML, Hsieh Y, Ng K, Korfmacher WA, Caprioli RM (2003) J Mass Spectrom 38:1081–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stoeckli M, Staab D, Schweitzer A, Gardiner J, Seebach D (2007) J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 18:1921–1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirschner N, Houdek P, Fromm M, Moll I, Brandner JM (2010) Eur J Cell Biol 89:839–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bazzoni G, Dejana E (2002) J Cell Biol 156:947–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Franz TJ (1975) J Invest Dermatol 64:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Diembeck W, Beck H, Benech-Kieffer F, Courtellemont P, Dupuis J, Lovell W, Paye M, Spengler J, Steiling W (1999) Food Chem Toxicol 37:191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Diembeck W, Eskes C, Heylings JR, Langley G, Rogiers V, van de Sandt JJ, Zuang V (2005) Altern Lab Anim 33 Suppl 1:105–107Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cronin MT, Dearden JC, Moss GP, Murray-Dickson G (1999) Eur J Pharm Sci 7:325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barry BW, Bennett SL (1987) J Pharm Pharmacol 39:535–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lagarrigue M, Becker M, Lavigne R, Deininger SO, Walch A, Aubry F, Suckau D, Pineau C (2011) Mol Cell Proteomics 10:M110 005991Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sandby-Moller J, Poulsen T, Wulf HC (2003) Acta Derm Venereol 83:410–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zaima N, Goto-Inoue N, Hayasaka T, Setou M (2010) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2723–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kiernan JA (1999) Microscopy Today 99–6:22–24Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ettori S, Peraud J-C, Barton J (1989) United States Patent US4824458 07/024,601Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams ML, Elias PM (1981) J Clin Invest 68:1404–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Strott CA, Higashi Y (2003) J Lipid Res 44:1268–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lampe MA, Williams ML, Elias PM (1983) J Lipid Res 24:131–140Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cheng H, Sun G, Yang K, Gross RW, Han X (2010) J Lipid Res 51:1599–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wertz PW, Downing DT (1988) Lipids 23:878–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Enthaler
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julia K. Pruns
    • 1
  • Sonja Wessel
    • 1
  • Claudius Rapp
    • 1
  • Markus Fischer
    • 2
  • Klaus-Peter Wittern
    • 1
  1. 1.Beiersdorf AGHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Hamburg School of Food Science, Institute of Food ChemistryUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations