On the mechanism of extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) in the dual-spray configuration
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Dual-spray extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) mass spectrometry as a versatile analytical technique has attracted much interest due to its advantages over conventional electrospray ionization (ESI). The crucial difference between EESI and ESI is that in the EESI process, the analytes are introduced in nebulized form via a neutral spray and ionized by collisions with the charged droplets from an ESI source formed by spraying pure solvent. However, the mechanism of the droplet–droplet interactions in the EESI process is still not well understood. For example, it is unclear which type of droplet–droplet interaction is dominant: bounce, coalescence, disruption, or fragmentation? In this work, droplet–droplet interaction was investigated in detail based on a theoretical model. Phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was employed to investigate the droplet behavior in the EESI plume and provide the experimental data (droplet size and velocity) necessary for theoretical analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed to clarify the influence of the sheath gas flow on the EESI process. No coalescence between the droplets in the ESI spray and the droplets in the sample spray was observed using various geometries and sample flow rates. Theoretical analysis, together with the PDA results, suggests that droplet fragmentation may be the dominant type of droplet–droplet interaction in the EESI. The interaction time between the ESI droplet and the sample droplet was estimated to be <5 μs. This work gives a clear picture of droplet–droplet interactions in the dual-spray EESI process and detailed information for the optimization of this method for future applications that require higher sensitivity.
KeywordsMass spectrometry Extractive electrospray Ionization mechanisms
We would like to thank Mr. Lukas Meier, Dr. Thomas Schmid, and Dr. Waisiang Law for their kind help and nice discussion. This project was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 200020-124663).
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