Novel surface molecularly imprinted sol–gel polymer applied to the online solid phase extraction of methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid from pork muscle

  • Zhen-Juan Duan
  • Li-Peng Fan
  • Guo-Zhen Fang
  • Jiang-Hua Yi
  • Shuo WangEmail author
Original Paper


A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), selective for major metabolites of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides was firstly prepared by combining surface molecular imprinting technique with the sol–gel process. Methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) was used as template, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as functional monomer, and tetraethoxysilicane as cross-linker. The MIP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and evaluated through static adsorption experiments. The results indicated that MIP had high adsorption capacity, fast binding kinetics for MQCA, and the polymer showed a high degree of cross-reactivity for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA). The MIP was then applied as a selective sorbent in an online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For a 50-mL sample solution, enrichment factors of 1,349 and 1,046 for QCA and MQCA, respectively, and limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.8 and 2 ng L−1 for QCA and MQCA, respectively, were obtained (corresponding to 0.02 and 0.04 ng g−1 in solid samples for final 100 mL of sample solutions of 5 g of pork). The sample preparation protocol was simplified and only included one step extraction with acetonitrile (MeCN) after the release of target analytes through acidic hydrolysis without further sample cleanup. The new MIP-SPE-HPLC method was successfully applied to the quantification of trace QCA and MQCA in pork muscle with good recoveries ranging from 67% to 80% and RSD below 8%.


A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), selective for methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), was prepared by combining surface molecular imprinting technique with the sol–gel process. The MIP could be applied as a selective sorbent of an online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)


Quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid Methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid Molecularly imprinted polymer Sol–gel Online solid phase extraction Pork 



This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (project no. 2009BADB9B07), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (project no. 30872126), and the National Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (project no. 10JCZDJC18300).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhen-Juan Duan
    • 1
  • Li-Peng Fan
    • 1
  • Guo-Zhen Fang
    • 1
  • Jiang-Hua Yi
    • 1
  • Shuo Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education of ChinaTianjin University of Science and TechnologyTianjinChina

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