Advertisement

Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations

  • Catia Clementi
  • Valeria Ciocan
  • Manuela Vagnini
  • Brenda Doherty
  • Marisa Laurenzi Tabasso
  • Cinzia Conti
  • Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti
  • Costanza Miliani
Original Paper

Abstract

The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV–vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye.

Keywords

Non-invasive analysis SERS Roman wall painting Egyptian blue Anthraquinonic lake 

Notes

Acknowledgments

MOLAB analyses have been carried out through the support of the EU within the sixth Framework Programme (Contract Eu-ARTECH, RII3-CT-2004-506171). Authors thank Dr. Alessia Daveri and Dr. Francesca Rosi of the MOLAB team. Dr. R. Mannucci and Prof. I. Nicoletti of the Laboratorio di Analisi di Immagine of the University of Perugia are gratefully acknowledged for making the confocal microscopy study possible.

References

  1. 1.
    Tacitus C (2003) Annales. G Einaudi, Turin, translated by R OnigaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suetonius G (1999) Nero. Bristol Classical Press, Bristol, Translated by BH WarmingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Plinio the Elder (1988) Naturalis Historia. G Einaudi, Turin, Translated by A CorsoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miliani C, Rosi F, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2010) Acc Chem Res 43:728–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    http://www.eu-artech.org/ [last accessed: 21 March 2011]
  6. 6.
    http://www.charismaproject.eu/ [last accessed: 21 March 2011]
  7. 7.
    Clementi C, Miliani C, Romani A, Favaro G (2006) Spectrochim Acta A 64:906–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee PC, Meisel D (1982) J Phys Chem 86:3391–3395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell S (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:15580–15581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vitruvio MP (1997) De Architectura. G. Einaudi, Torino. Translated and discussed by Gros, Corso P, Romano AEGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bèarat H (1996) In: Roman wall painting. Materials, techniques, analysis and conservation. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Roman Wall Painting. University of Fribourg, FribourgGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baraldi P, Baraldi C, Curina R, Tassi L, Tannini P (2007) Vibr Spectrosc 43:420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Edreira MC, Feliu MJ, Fernandez-Lorenzo C, Martıìn J (2003) Talanta 59:1117–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paternoster G, Rinzivillo R, Nunziata F, Castellucci EM, Lofrumento C, Zoppi A, Felici AC, Fronterotta G, Nicolais C, Piacentini M, Sciuti S, Vendittelli M (2005) J Cultur Herit 6:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aliatis I, Bersani D, Campani E, Casoli A, Lottici PP, Mantovana S, Marino IG (2010) J Raman Spectrosc 41:1537–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koren Zvi C (2008) Microchim Acta 162:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Andreotti A, Bonaduce A, Colombini MP, Ribechini E (2004) Rapid Comm Mass Spectr 18:1213–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bruni S, Guglielmi V, Pozzi F (2010) J Raman spectrosc 41:175–180Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baraldi P, Seccaroni C (2005) Kermes: la rivista del restauro 58:65–70Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki P, Kallithrakas-Kontos N (2003) Anal Chim Acta 497:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pérez-Arantegui J, Ribechini E, Cepriá G, Degano I, Colombini MP, Paz-Peralta J, Ortiz-Palomar E (2009) Trends Anal Chem 28:1019–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clarke M, Fredrickx P, Colombini M.P, Andreotti A, Wouters J, van Bommel M, Eastaugh N, Walsh V, Chaplin T, Siddall R (2005) In: art’05. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on “Non destructive investigations and micronalysis for the diagnostics and conservation of the cultural and environmental heritage”, Lecce, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Artists’ pigments: a handbook of their history and characteristics (1997) Vol.3 E. Weast Fitzhugh (ed), Oxford University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bordignon F, Postorino P, Dore P, TrojSi G (2007) J Raman Spectrosc 38:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mazzocchin GA, Rudello D, Bragato C, Agnoli F (2004) J Cultur Herit 5:129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pages-Camagna S, Colinart S (2003) Archaeometry 45:637–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pozza G, Ajò D, Chiari G, De Zuane F, Favaro M (2000) J Cultur Herit 1:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Accorsi G, Verri G, Bolognesi M, Armaroli N, Clementi C, Miliani C, Romani A (2009) Chem Commun 23:3392–3394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Romani A, Clementi C, Miliani C, Favaro G (2010) Acc Chem Res 43:837–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eastaugh N, Walsh V, Chaplin T, Siddall R (2004) Pigment compendium: a dictionary of historical pigments. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clementi C, Doherty B, Gentili PL, Miliani C, Romani A, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2008) App Phys A 92:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Verri G, Clementi C, Comelli D, Cather S, Piqué F (2008) App spectrosc 62:1295–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Clementi C, Miliani C, Verri G, Sotiropoulou S, Romani A, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2009) App Spectrosc 62:1323–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Best SP, Clark RJH, Daniels MAM, Porter CA, Withnall R (1995) Stud Conserv 40:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hradil D, Grygar T, Hrušková M, Bezdička P, Lang K, Schneeweiss O, Chvátal M (2004) Clays and Clay Minerals 52:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ospitali F, Bersani D, Di Leonardo G, Lottici PP (2008) J Raman spectros 39:1066–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mazzochin GA, Vianello A, Minghelli S, Rudello D (2010) Archeometry 52:644–655Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chen K, Leona M, Vo-Dinh KC, Yan F, Wabuyele MB, Vo-Dinh T (2006) J Raman Spectrosc 37:520–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leona M, Stenger J, Ferloni E (2006) J Raman Spectrosc 37:981–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miliani C, Rosi F, Borgia I, Benedetti P, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2007) Appl Spectrosc 3:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rosi F, Daveri A, Miliani C, Verri G, Benedetti P, Piqué F, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 395:2097–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vagnini M, Miliani C, Cartechini L, Rocchi P, Brunetti BG, Sgamellotti A (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 395:2107–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catia Clementi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Valeria Ciocan
    • 2
  • Manuela Vagnini
    • 3
  • Brenda Doherty
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marisa Laurenzi Tabasso
    • 3
  • Cinzia Conti
    • 4
  • Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Costanza Miliani
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.SMAArt, c/o Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità degli Studi di PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.SMAARTUniversità degli Studi di Perugia e INSTMPerugiaItaly
  3. 3.SMAART e il Restauro dei Beni CulturaliUniversità degli Studi di RomaRomaItaly
  4. 4.Archeologica di RomaRomaItaly
  5. 5.Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (CNR-ISTM), c/o Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità degli Studi di PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations