Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 402, Issue 1, pp 139–162 | Cite as

Challenges and trends in the determination of selected chemical contaminants and allergens in food

  • Rudolf Krska
  • Adam Becalski
  • Eric Braekevelt
  • Terry Koerner
  • Xu-Liang Cao
  • Robert Dabeka
  • Samuel Godefroy
  • Ben Lau
  • John Moisey
  • Dorothea F. K. Rawn
  • Peter M. Scott
  • Zhongwen Wang
  • Don ForsythEmail author


This article covers challenges and trends in the determination of some major food chemical contaminants and allergens, which—among others—are being monitored by Health Canada’s Food Directorate and for which background levels in food and human exposure are being analyzed and calculated. Eleven different contaminants/contaminant groups and allergens have been selected for detailed discussion in this paper. They occur in foods as a result of: use as a food additive or ingredient; processing-induced reactions; food packaging migration; deliberate adulteration; and/or presence as a chemical contaminant or natural toxin in the environment. Examples include acrylamide as a food-processing-induced contaminant, bisphenol A as a food packaging-derived chemical, melamine and related compounds as food adulterants and persistent organic pollutants, and perchlorate as an environmental contaminant. Ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins are examples of naturally occurring toxins whereas sulfites, peanuts, and milk exemplify common allergenic food additives/ingredients. To deal with the increasing number of sample matrices and analytes of interest, two analytical approaches have become increasingly prevalent. The first has been the development of rapid screening methods for a variety of analytes based on immunochemical techniques, utilizing ELISA or surface plasmon resonance technology. The second is the development of highly sophisticated multi-analyte methods based on liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-stage mass spectrometry for identification and simultaneous quantification of a wide range of contaminants, often with much less requirement for tedious cleanup procedures. Whereas rapid screening methods enable testing of large numbers of samples, the multi analyte mass spectrometric methods enable full quantification with confirmation of the analytes of interest. Both approaches are useful when gathering surveillance data to determine occurrence and background levels of both recognized and newly identified contaminants in foods in order to estimate human daily intake for health risk assessment.


Food safety Chemical contaminants Acrylamide Bisphenol A Melamine Perchlorate Sulfites Persistent organic pollutants Mycotoxins Phycotoxins Allergens 



This article was written as a result of a one-year tenure of the first author at the Food Research Division of Health Canada’s Bureau of Chemical Safety. In this respect, the first author would like to express his great gratitude to Dr Samuel Godefroy, John Salminen, Barbara Lee, and all members of the FRD for their great support and enthusiasm.


  1. 1.
    Murphy PA, Hendrich S, Landgren C, Bryant CM (2006) Food mycotoxins: An update. J Food Sci 71:R51–R65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reddy KRN, Salleh B, Saad B, Abbas HK, Abel CA, Shier WT (2010) An overview of mycotoxin contamination in foods and its implications for human health. Toxin Reviews 29:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mayer AMS (2009) Special issue on marine toxins. Mar Drugs 7:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aráoz R, Molgó J, Tandeau de Marsac N (2010) Neurotoxic cyanobacterial toxins. Toxicon 56:813–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rawn DFK, Breakell K, Verigin V, Nicolidakis H, Sit D, Feeley M (2009) Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the canadian market: Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides. J Food Sci 74:T14–T19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parzefall W (2002) Risk assessment of dioxin contamination in human food. Food Chem Toxicol 40:1185–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker BP, Benbrook CM, Groth E, Benbrook KL (2002) Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: Insights from three US data sets. Food Addit Contam 19:427–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang Z, Forsyth D, Lau BP, Pelletier L, Bronson R, Gaertner D (2009) Estimated dietary exposure of canadians to perchlorate through the consumption of fruits and vegetables available in ottawa markets. J Agric Food Chem 57:9250–9255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muncke J (2009) Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: Is packaging a relevant source? Sci Total Environ 407:4549–4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stolker AAM, Brinkman UAT (2005) Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review. J Chromatogr A 1067:15–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Becalski A, Lau BP, Lewis D, Seaman SW (2003) Acrylamide in foods: Occurrence, sources, and modeling. J Agr and Food Chem 51:802–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alaejos MS, González V, Afonso AM (2008) Exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines from the consumption of cooked red meat and its effect on human cancer risk: A review. Food Addit Contam - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 25:2–24Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tittlemier SA, Lau BP, Ménard C, Corrigan C, Sparling M, Gaertner D (2009) Melamine in infant formula sold in canada: Occurrence and risk assessment. J Agric Food Chem 57:5340–5344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vahl M (1993) A survey of ethyl carbamate in beverages, bread and acidified milks sold in denmark. Food Addit Contam 10:585–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corsolini S, Guerranti C, Perra G, Focardi S (2008) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds and chlorinated pesticides in swordfish (xiphias gladius) from the mediterranean sea. Environ Sci Technol 42:4344–4349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Tornqvist M (2000) Acrylamide: A cooking carcinogen? Chem Res Toxicol 13:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mills C, Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL (2009) Process-Induced Food Toxicants. Occurence, Formation, Mitigation and Health Risks. John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Becalski A , Lau BP-Y, Lewis D, Seaman SW (2002) Acrylamide in foods: Occurence and sources. AOAC Int. Annual meeting, Los Angeles, CA, September 22–26, 2002Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Friedman MA, Dulak LH, Stedham MA (1995) A lifetime oncogenicity study in rats with acrylamide. Fundam Appl Toxicol 27:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2006). Evaluation of certain food contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series 930Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (1994) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 60:389–433Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    EFSA (2008) Results on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food (EFSA-Q-2008-343). EFSAGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baum M, Bohm N, Gorlitz J, Lantz I, Merz KH, Ternite R, Eisenbrand G (2008) Fate of 14C-acrylamide in roasted and ground coffee during storage. Mol Nutr Food Res 52:600–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koch M, Bremser W, Koeppen R, Siegel D, Toepfer A, Nehls I (2009) Development of two certified reference materials for acrylamide determination in foods. J Agric Food Chem 57:8202–8207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoenicke K, Gatermann R (2005) Studies on the stability of acrylamide in food during storage. J AOAC Int 88:268–273Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gokmen V, Senyuva HZ (2008) Bioactive compounds in foods. Blackwell Pub. Ltd, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castle L (2006) Acrylamide and other hazardous compounds in heat-treated foods. Woolhead Pub. Ltd, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stadler RH, Goldmann T (2008) Chapter 20: Acrylamide, Food Contaminants and Residue Analysis. Elsevier B.V, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosen J, Nyman A, Hellenas K-E (2007) Retention studies of acrylamide for the design of a robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for food analysis. J Chromatogr A 1172:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Becalski A, Lau BP-Y, Lewis D, Seaman SW, Hayward S, Sahagian M, Ramesh LY (2004) Acrylamide in French fries: Influence of free amino acids and sugars. J Agric Food Chem 52:3801–3806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fohgelberg P, Rosen J, Hellenas K-E, Abramsson-Zetterberg L (2005) The acrylamide intake via some common baby food for children in Sweden during their first year of life-an improved method for analysis of acrylamide. Food Chem Toxicol 43:951–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Biedermann M, Grob K (2008) In GC-MS, acrylamide from heated foods may be coeluted with 3-hydroxy propionitrile. Eur J Food Sci and Technol 227:945–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Elmore JS, Koutsidis G, Dodson AT, Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL (2005) Determination of acrylamide and its precursors in potato, wheat, and rye model systems. J Agric Food Chem 53:1286–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pittet A, Persset A, Oberson JM (2004) trace level determination of acrylamide in cereal-based foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1035:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Soares C, Alves RC, Casal S, Oliveira MB, Fernandes JO (2010) Development and validation of a matrix solid-phase dispersion method to determine acrylamide in coffee and coffee substitutes. J Food Sci 75:T57–T63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Andrzejewski D, Roach JAG, Gay ML, Musser SM (2004) Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 52:1996–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pardo O, Yusa V, Coscolla C, Leon N, Pastor A (2007) Determination of acrylamide in coffee and chocolate by pressurised fluid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam 24:663–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunovska L, Cajka T, Hajslova J, Holadova K (2006) Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography–high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chimica Acta 578:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang Y, Dong Y, Ren Y, Zhang Y (2006) Rapid determination of acrylamide contaminant in conventional fried foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. J Chromatogr A 1116:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Owen LM, Castle L, Kelly J, Wilson L, Lloyd AS (2005) Acrylamide Analysis: Assessment of Results from Six Rounds of Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS®) Proficiency Testing. J AOAC Int 88:285–291Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Klaffke H, Fauhl C, Mathar E, Palavinskas R, Wittkowski R, Wenzl T, Anklam E (2005) Results from two interlaboratory comparison tests organized in Germany and at the EU Level for analysis of acrylamide in Food. J AOAC Int 88:292–298Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wenzl T, Karasek L, Rosen J, Hellenas K-E, Crews C, Castle L, Anklam E (2006) Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products. J Chromatogr A 1132:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jezussek M, Schieberle P (2003) A New LC/MS-Method for the quantitation of acrylamide based on a stable isotope dilution assay and derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. Comparison with two GC/MS Methods. J Agric Food Chem 51:7866–7871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Delatour T, Perisset A, Goldmann T, Riediker S, Stadler RH (2004) Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrices such as chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogates by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 52:4625–4631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ren Y, Zhang Y, Jiao J, Cai Z, Zhang Y (2006) Sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of acrylamide in chocolate. Food Addit Contam 23:228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yusa V, Quintas G, Pardo O, Marti P, Pastor A (2006) Determination of acrylamide in foods by pressurized fluid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry used for a survey of Spanish cereal-based foods. Food Addit Contam 23:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Karasek L, Wenzl T, Anklam E (2009) Determination of acrylamide in roasted chestnuts and chestnut-based foods by isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS. Food Chem 114:1555–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nielsen NJ, Granby K, Hedegaard RV, Skibsted LH (2006) A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and the precursors, asparagine and reducing sugars in bread. Anal Chim Acta 557:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bermudo E, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galceran MT (2008) Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products. Talanta 76:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    McHale KJ, Winnik W, Paul G (2009) Quantitation of acrylamide in food samples on the TSQ Quantum Discovery by LC/APCI-MS/MS. Thermo Scientific Application Notebook [1], 20–22Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Becalski A, Lau BP-Y, Lewis D, Seaman SW (2005) Chemistry and safety of acrylamide in food. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Govaert Y, Arisseto A, van Loco J, Scheers E, Fraselle S, Weverbergh E, Degroodt JM, Goeyens L (2005) Optimisation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Anal Chim Acta 556:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhou S, Zhang C, Wang D, Zhao M (2008) Antigen synthetic strategy and immunoassay development for detection of acrylamide in foods. Analyst 133:903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Preston A, Fodey T, Elliot C (2008) Development of a high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the routine detection of the carcinogen acrylamide in food, via rapid derivatisation pre-analysis. Anal Chim Acta 608:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    EC (2004) Commission Directive 2004/19/EC of 1 March 2004 amending Directive 2002/72/EC relating to plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. Offic J Eur Union 47(L71):8–21Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1993) Bisphenol A. (CASRN 80-05-7), Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), 1993. Available at
  57. 57.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2006) Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. EFSA Journal 428:1–6Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Health Canada (2008) Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications.
  59. 59.
    Yoshida T, Horie M, Hoshino Y, Nakazawa H (2001) Determination of bisphenol A in canned vegetables and fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Addit Contam 18:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goodson A, Summerfield W, Cooper I (2002) Survey of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in canned foods. Food Addit Contam 19:796–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thomson BM, Grounds PR (2005) Bisphenol A in canned foods in New Zealand: an exposure assessment. Food Addit Contam 22:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Biles JE, McNeal TP, Begley TH (1997) Determination of bisphenol A migrating from epoxy can coatings to infant formula liquid concentrates. J Agric Food Chem 45:4697–4700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kang J-H, Kondo F (2003) Determination of bisphenol A in milk and dairy products by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Food Protect 66:1439–43Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kuo H-W, Ding W-H (2004) Trace determination of bisphenol A and phytoestrogens in infant formula powders by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1027:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kang J-H, Kondo F (2002) Bisphenol A migration from cans containing coffee and caffeine. Food Addit Contam 19:886–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Maragou NC, Lampi EN, Thomaidis NS, Koupparis MA (2006) Determination of bisphenol A in milk by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1129:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Munguia-Lopez EM, Gerardo-Lugo S, Peralta E, Bolymen S, Soto-Valdez H (2005) Migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from can coatings into a fatty-food stimulant and tuna fish. Food Addit Contam 22:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Government of Canada (2008) Screening Assessment for The Challenge Phenol, 4,4' -(1-methylethylidene)bis-(Bisphenol A) Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 80-05-7.
  69. 69.
  70. 70.
  71. 71.
    Cao X-L, Dufresne G, Belisle S, Clement G, Falicki M, Beraldin F, Rulibikiye A (2008) Levels of bisphenol A in canned liquid infant formula products in Canada and dietary intake estimates. J Agric Food Chem 56:7919–7924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Health Canada (2009) Survey of bisphenol A in canned powdered infant formula products.
  73. 73.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J, Popovic S (2009) Levels of bisphenol A in canned soft drink products in Canadian markets. J Agric Food Chem 57:1307–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J, Popovic S, Clement G, Beraldin F, Dufresne G (2009) Bisphenol A in baby food products contained in glass jars with metal lids from Canadian markets. J Agric Food Chem 57:5345–5351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J, Popovic S. (2010a) Bisphenol A in canned food products from Canadian markets. J Food Protection, in pressGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J (2008) Determination of bisphenol A in water by isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry without derivatization. J AOAC Intern 91:622–629Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J (2008) Migration of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby and water bottles to water under severe conditions. J Agric Food Chem 56:6378–6381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J (2008) Survey of bisphenol A in bottled water products in Canada. Food Addit Contam Part B 1:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cao X-L, Corriveau J, Popovic S (2010b) Sources of low levels of bisphenol A in canned beverage products. J Food Protection, in pressGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dobson RLM, Motlagh S, Quijano M, Cambron RT, Baker TR, Pullen AM, Regg BT, Bigalow-Kern AS, Vennard T, Fix A, Reimschuessel R, Overmann G, Shan Y, Daston GP (2008) Identification and characterization of toxicity of contaminants in pet food leading to an outbreak of renal toxicity in cats and dogs. Toxicol Sci 106:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gossner CM-E, Schlundt J, Ben Embarek P, Hird S, Lo-Fo-Wong D, Beltran JJO, Teoh KN, Tritscher A (2009) The melamine incident: implications for international food and feed safety. Environ Health Perspect 117:1803–1808Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Andersen WC, Turnipseed SB, Karbiwnyk CM, Clark SB, Madson MR, Gieseker CM, Miller RA, Rummel NG, Reimschuessel R (2008) Determination and confirmation of melamine residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon, and shrimp by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 56:4340–4347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yokley RA, Mayer LC, Rezaaiyan R, Manuli ME, Cheung MW (2000) Analytical method for the determination of cyromazine and melamine residues in soil using LC-UV and GC-MSD. J Agric Food Chem 48:3352–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lund KH, Petersen JH (2006) Migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers from kitchen- and tableware made of melamine plastic. Food Addit Contam 23:948–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Braekevelt E, Lau BPY, Feng S, Ménard C, Tittlemier SA (2011) Determination of melamine, ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid in infant formula purchased in Canada by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam 28:698–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Varelis P, Jeskelis R (2008) Preparation of [13C3]-melamine and [13C3]-cyanuric acid and their application to the analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid in meat and pet food using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam 25:1208–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Karbiwnyk CM, Andersen WC, Turnipseed SB, Storey JM, Madson MR, Miller KE, Gieseker CM, Miller RA, Rummel NG, Reimschuessel R (2009) Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 637:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tittlemier SA, Lau BPY, Ménard C, Corrigan C, Sparling M, Gaertner D, Pepper K, Feeley M (2009) Melamine in infant formula sold in Canada: occurrence and risk assessment. J Agric Food Chem 57:5340–5344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ehling S, Tefera S, Ho IP (2007) High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous detection of the adulteration of cereal flours with melamine and related triazine by-products ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid. Food Addit Contam 24:1319–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Filigenzi MS, Puschner B, Aston LS, Poppenga RH (2008) Diagnostic determination of melamine and related compounds in kidney tissue by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 56:7593–7599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Heller DN, Nochetto CB (2008) Simultaneous determination and confirmation of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed by zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3624–3632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Muñiz-Valencia R, Ceballos-Magaña SG, Rosales-Martinez D, Gonzalo-Lumbreras R, Santos-Montes A, Cubedo-Fernandez-Trapiella A, Izquierdo-Hornillos RC (2008) Method development and validation for melamine and its derivatives in rice concentrates by liquid chromatography. Application to animal feed samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 392:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sancho JV, Ibáñez M, Grimalt S, Pozo ÓJ, Hernández F (2005) Residue determination of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine in chard samples by ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 530:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Miao H, Fan S, Wu Y-N, Zhang L, Zhou P-P, Li J-G, Chen H-J, Zhao Y-F (2009) Simultaneous determination of melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed Environ Sci 22:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Garber EAE (2008) Detection of melamine using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. J Food Prot 71:590–594Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Huang G, Ouyang Z, Cooks RG (2009) High-throughput trace melamine analysis in complex mixtures. Chem Comm 2009:556–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhu L, Gamez G, Chen H, Chingina K, Zenobi R (2009) Rapid detection of melamine in untreated milk and wheat gluten by ultrasound-assisted extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Chem Comm 2009:559–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    World Health Organization. Toxicological and health aspects of melamine and cyanuric acid (2009) World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lachenmeier DW, Humpfer E, Fang F, Schütz B, Dvortsak P, Sproll C, Spraul M (2009) NMR-spectroscopy for nontargeted screening and simultaneous quantification of health-relevant compounds in foods: the example of melamine. J Agric Food Chem 57:7194–7199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vallack HW, Bakker DJ, Brandt I, Broström-Lundén E, Brouwer A, Bull KR, Grough C, Guardans R, Holoubek I, Jansson B, Koch R, Kuylenstierna J, Lecloux A, Mackay D, McCutcheon P, Mocarelli P, Taalman RDF (1998) Controlling persistent organic pollutants – what next. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 6:143–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Durand B, Dufour B, Fraisse D, Defour S, Duhem K, Le-Barillec K (2008) Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in raw cow’s milk collected from France in 2006. Chemosphere 70:689–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Behrooz RD, Sari AE, Bahramifar N, Naghdi F, Shahriyari AR (2009) Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Tabriz, Iran. Toxicol Environ Chem 91:1455–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stockholm Convention Secretariat (2010) Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). What are POPs? POPs/tabid/673/language/en-US/Default.aspx. Accessed 28 June 2010
  104. 104.
    Covaci A, Voorspoels S, Vetter W, Gelbin A, Jorens PG, Blust R, Neels H (2007) Anthropogenic and naturally occurring organobrominated compounds in fish oil dietary supplements. Environ Sci Technol 41:5237–5244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Huwe JK (2002) Dioxins in food: A modern agricultural perspective. J Agric Food Chem 50:1739–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Van Oostdam J, Gilman A, Dewailly E, Usher P, Wheatley B, Kuhnlein H, Neve S, Walker J, Tracy B, Feeley M, Jerome V, Kwavnick B (1999) Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review. Sci Tot Environ 230:1–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Van Den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Bosveld ATC, Brunström B, Cook P, Feeley M, Geisy JP, Hanberg A, Hasegawa R, Kennedy SW, Kubiak T, Larsen JC, van Leewen FXR, Liem AKD, Nolt C, Peterson RE, Poellinger L, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tillitt D, Tysklind M, Younes M, Wærn F, Zacharewski T (1998) Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ Health Perspect 106:775–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Van Den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher AJ, Tuomisto M, Tysklind N, Walker, Peterson RE (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schecter A, Dellarco M, Päpke O, Olson J (1998) A comparison of dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar PCBs in uncooked and broiled ground beef, catfish and bacon. Chemosphere 37:1723–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Manthey, C, Chiles B. and Mateel Environmental Justice Foundation Plaintiffs. (2009) Accessed 26 April, 2010
  111. 111.
    Schecter A, Harris TR, Shah N, Musumba A, Päpke O (2008) Brominated flame retardants in US food. Mol Nutr Food Res 52:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Darnerud PO, Atuma S, Aune M, Bjerselius R, Glynn A, Petersson K, Becker GW (2006) Dietary intake estimations of organohalogen contaminants (dioxins, PCB, PBDE and chlorinated pesticides, e.g. DDT) based on Swedish market basket data. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1597–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fernandes AR, Tlustos C, Smith F, Carr M, Petch R, Rose M (2009) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs) in Irish food of animal origin. Food Addit Contam Part B 2:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Voorspoels S, Covaci A, Neels H (2008) Dietary PCB intake in Belgium. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Domingo JL (2004) Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers through the diet. J Chromatogr A 1054:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kijlstra A, Traag WA, Hoogenboom LAP (2007) Effect of flock size on dioxin levels in eggs from chickens kept outside. Poultry Sci 86:2042–2048Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rawn DFK, Forsyth DS, Ryan JJ, Breakell K, Verigin V, Nicolidakis H, Hayward S, Laffey P, Conacher HBS (2006) PCB, PCDD and PCDF residues in fin and non-fin fish products from the Canadian retail market 2002. Sci Tot Environ 359:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Roosens L, Dirtu AC, Goemans G, Belpaire C, Gheorghe A, Neels H, Blust R, Covaci A (2008) Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from the river Scheldt. Belgium Environ Intern 34:976–983Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Covaci A, Roosens L, Dirtu AG, Waegeneers N, Van Overmeire I, Neels H, Goeyens L (2009) Brominated flame retardants in Belgian home-produced eggs: levels and contamination sources. Sci Tot Environ 407:4387–4396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rawn DFK, Breakell K, Verigin V, Nicolidakis H, Sit D, Feeley M (2009) Persistent Organic Pollutants in Fish Oil Supplements on the Canadian Market: Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides. J Food Sci 74:T14–T19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Roosens L, Abdallah MA-E, Harrad S, Neels H, Covaci A (2009) Factors influencing concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in students from Antwerp, Belgium. Environ Sci Technol 43:3535–3541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Raab U, Preiss U, Albrecht M, Shahin N, Parlar H, Froome H (2008) Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine insecticides and nitro musks in mother’s milk from Germany (Bavaria). Chemosphere 72:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fürst P (2006) Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:922–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fontcuberta M, Arqués JF, Villalbí JR, Martínez M, Centrich F, Serrahima E, Pineda L, Duran J, Casas C (2008) Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001–06. Sci Tot Environ 389:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nardelli V, Palermo C, Centonze D (2004) Rapid multiresidue extraction method of organochlorinated pesticides from fish feed. J Chromatogr A 1034:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schecter A, Päpke O, Harris TR, Tung KC, Musumba A, Olson J, Birnbaum L (2006) Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex. Environ Health Perspect 114:1515–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Llorca M, Farré M, Picó Y, Teijón ML, Álvarez JG, Barceló D (2010) Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food. Environ Intern 36:584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Simsa P, Mihalyi A, Schoeters G, Koppen G, Kyama CM, Den Hond EW, Fülöp V, D’Hooghe TM (2010) Increased exposure to dioxin-like compounds is associated with endometriosis in a case-control study in women. Reprod Biomed Online. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2010.01.018
  129. 129.
    Motzer WE (2001) Perchlorate: problems, detection, and solutions. Environ Forensics 2:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Dasgupta PK, Jason VD, Kirk AB, Jackson WA (2006) Perchlorate in the United States. Analysis of relative source contributions to the food chain. Environ Sci Technol 40:6608–6614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Susarla S, Collette TW, Garrison AW, Wolfe NL, McCutcheon SC (1999) Perchlorate identification in fertilizer. Environ Sci Technol 33:3469–3472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rao B, Anderson TA, Orris GJ, Rainwater KA, Rajagopalan S, Sandvig RM, Scanlon BR, Stonestrom DA, Walvoord MA, Jackson WA (2007) Widespread natural perchlorate in unsaturated zones of the southwest united states. Environ Sci Technol 41:4522–4528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Urbansky ET (2002) Perchlorate as an environmental contaminant. Environ Sci Pollut Res 9:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kirk AB (2006) Environmental perchlorate: why it matters. Anal Chim Acta 567:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Health implications of perchlorate ingestion (2005) National Research Council National Academies Press. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sanchez CA, Crump KS, Krieger RI, Khandaker NR, Gibbs JP (2005) Perchlorate and nitrate in leafy vegetagles of North America. Environ Sci Technol 39:9391–9397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Park JW, Rinchard J, Anderson TA, Liu F, Theodorakis CW (2005) Food Chain transfer of perchlorate in largemouth bass, micropterus salmoides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Snyder SA, Pleus RC, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC (2006) Perchlorate and chlorate in dietary supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients. Anal Chim Acta 567:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Martinelango PK, Tian K, Dasgupta PK (2006) Perchlorate in seawater bioconcentration of iodide and perchlorate by various seaweed species. Anal Chim Acta 567:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    EI Aribi H, Le Blanc YJC, Antosen S, Sakuma T (2006) Analysis of perchlorate in foods and beverages by ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry(IC-ESI-MS/MS). Anal Chim Acta 567:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pearce EN, Leung AM, Blount BC, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Valentin- Blasini L, Braverman LE (2006) Breast milk iodine and perchlroate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. J Clin Endocrin Metabol 92:1673–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tellez TR, Michaud CP, Reyes AC, Blount BC, Van Landingham CB, Crump KS, Gibbs JP (2005) Long-term environmental exposure to perchlorate through drinking water and thyroid function during pregnancy and the neonatal period. Thyroid 15:963–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Dyke JV, ITO K, Obitsu T, Hisamatsu Y, Dasgupta PK, Blount BC (2007) Perchlorate in dairy milk: comparison of Japan versus the United States. Environ Sci Technol 41:88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shi Y, Zhang P, Wang Y, Shi J, Cai Y, Mou S, Jiang G (2007) Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China. Environ Int 33:955–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Murray CW, Egan SK, Kim H, Beru N, Bolger PM (2008) US food and drug administration’s total diet study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine. J Exp Sci Environ Epidem 962:1–10Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schier JG, Wolkin AF, Valentin-Blasini L, Belson MG, Kieszak SM, Rubin CS, Blount BC (2009) Perchlorate exposure from infant formula and comparison with the perchlorate referenc dose. J Exp Sci Environ Epidem 1:1–7Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Anderson TA, Wu TH (2002) Extraction, cleanup, and analysis of the perchlorate anion in tissue samples. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68:684–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Method 314.0 Determination of perchlorate in drinking water using ion chromatography. Revision 1.0, Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1999Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Method 331.0 Determination of perchlorate in drinking water by liquid chromatography electrospray ioniazation mass spectrometry. Revision 1.0, Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnnati, OH, 2005Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Snyder SA, Vanderford BJ, Rexing DJ (2005) Trace analysis of bromated, chlorate, iodate, and perchlorate in natural and bottled waters. Environ Sci Technol 39:4586–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Krynitsky AJ, Niemann RA, Williams AD, Hopper ML (2006) Streamlined sample preparation procedure for determination of perchlroate anion in foods by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 567:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Backus SM, Klawuun PS, D’sa I, Sharp S, Surette C, Williams DJ (2005) Determination of perchlorate in selected surface waters in the great lakes basin by HPLC/MS/MS. Chemosphere 61:834–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T (2009) Perchlorate: Health effects and technologies for its removal from water resources. Int Environ Res Public Health 6:1418–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Fazio T, Warner CR (1990) A review of sulphites in foods: analytical methodlogy and reported findings. Food Addit Contam 7:433–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lester MR (1995) Sulfite sensitivity: significance in human health. J Am Coll Nutr 14:229–232Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Food US, Administration D (1986) Sulphating agents: revocation of GRAS status for use on fruits and vegetables intended to be served or sold raw to consumers. Fed Regist 51:25021–25026Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Regulations amending the food and drug regulations (1220-enhaced labelling for food allergen and gluten sources and added sulphites (2008) Canada Gazette Part I July 26, 2276Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Official Methods of Analysis (2000) Sulfites in foods, optimized Monier-Williams method. 17th Ed, AOAC Int, Gaithersburg, MD, Method 990.28Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Yaqoob M, Nabi A, Waseem A, Masoon-Yasinzai M (2004) Determination of sulphite using an immobilized enzyme with flow injection chemiluminescence detection. Luminescence 19:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    McFeeters RF, Barish AO (2003) Sulfiteanalysis of fruits and vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection. J Agric Food Chem 51:1513–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    de Carvalho LM, Schwedt G (2001) Polarographic determination of dithionite and its decomposition products: kinetic aspects, stabilizers and analytical application. Anal Chim Acta 436:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Masar M, Dankova M, Olvecka E, Stachurova A, Kaniansky D, Stanislawski B (2004) Determination of free sulfite in wine by zone electrophoresis with isotachophoresis sample pretreatment on a column-coupling chip. J Chromatogr A 1026:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Claudia RC, Francisco JC (2009) Application of flow injection analysis for determination sulphites in food and beverages: A review. Food Chem 112:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Safavi A, Haghighi B (1997) Flow injection of sulphite by gas-phase molecular absorption UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Talanta 44:1009–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Scotter MJ, Castle L (2004) Chemical interanctions between additives in foodstuffs: a review. Food Addit Contam 21:93–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Michigami Y, Morooka M, Ueda K (1996) Determination of sulphite and sulphate by ion chromatography using a weakly basic phthalate eluent. J Chromatogr A 732:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Warner CR, Daniels DH, Fitzgerald MC, Joe FL Jr, Diachenko GW (1990) Determination of free and reversibly bound sulphite in foods by reverse-phase, ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Addit Contam A 7(575):581Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    O’Reilly JW, Dicinoski GW, Shaw MJ, Haddad PR (2001) Chromatographic and electrophoretic separation of inorganic sulfur and sulfur-oxygen species. Anal Chim Acta 432:165–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wang Z, Sparling M, Forsyth D (2010) Sulfur Speciation Analysis by Ion-Chromatography hyphenated to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Oral Presentation Feb 28-Mar 5, 2010, Pittcon, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Heinzel MA, Truper HG (1978) Sulfite formation by wine yeasts. Arch Microbiol 118:243–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Heilmann J, Heumann KG (2008) Development of a species-unspecific isotope dilution GC/ICP/MS method for possible routine quantification of sulfur species in petroleum products. Anal Chem 80:1952–1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Wai S, Chung C, Chan BTP, Chan ACM (2008) Determination of free and reversibly-bound sulfite in selected foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. J AOAC Int 91:98–102Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Boatright W, Lei Q, Stine C (2006) Sulfite formation in isolated soy proteins. J Food Sci 71:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Shephard GS, Berthiller F, Dorner J, Krska R, Lombaert GA, Malone B, Maragos C, Sabino M, Solfrizzo M, Trucksess MW, van Egmond HP, Whitaker TB (2010) Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009–2010. World Mycotoxin J 3:3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Maragos CM, Busman M (2010) Rapid and advanced tools for mycotoxin analysis: a review. Food Addit Contam A 27:688–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bayman P, Baker JL (2006) Ochratoxins: a global perspective. Mycopathologia 162:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Clark Clark HA, Snedeker SM (2006) Ochratoxin A: its cancer risk and potential for exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health B 9:265–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    O’Brien E, Dietrich DR (2005) Ochratoxin A: The continuing enigma. Crit Rev Toxicol 35:33–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1993) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans number 56. IARC Press, Lyon, France, pp 489–521Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Tafuri A, Meca G, Ritieni A (2008) A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method developed to analyze ochratoxin A in wine. J Food Protect 71:2133–2137Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Romero-González R, Vidal JLM, Aguilera-Luiz MM (2010) Determination of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin in alcoholic beverages by hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta 82:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Marasas WFO (2001) Discovery and occurrence of the fumonisins: a historical perspective. Environ Health Persp 109(suppl 2):239–243Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Jackson L, Jablonski J (2004) Fumonisins. In: Nagan M, Olsen M (eds) Mycotoxins in food: Detection and control. Woodhead, Cambridge, pp 367–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Månsson M, Klejnstrup ML, Phipps RK, Nielsen KF, Frisvad JC, Gotfredsen CH, Larsen TO (2010) Isolation and NMR characterization of fumonisin B2 and a new fumonisin B6 from Aspergillus niger. J Agric Food Chem 58:949–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mogensen JM, Larsen TO, Nielsen KF (2010) Widespread occurrence of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 in wine. J Agric Food Chem 58:4853–4857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Bartók T, Tölgyesi L, Szekeres A, Varga M, Bartha R, Szécsi A, Bartók M, Mesterházy A (2010) Detection and characterization of twenty-eight isomers of fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxin in a solid rice culture infected with Fusarium verticillioides by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gazzotti T, Lugoboni B, Zironi E, Barbarossa A, Serraino A, Pagliuca G (2009) Determination of fumonisin B1 in bovine milk by LC–MS/MS. Food Control 20:1171–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Songsermsakul P, Razzazi-Fazeli E (2008) A review of recent trends in applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of mycotoxins. J Liq Chromatogr Rel Technol 31:1641–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Monbaliu S, Van Poucke C, Detavernier C, Dumoulin F, Van De Velde M, Schoeters E, Van Dyck S, Averkieva O, Van Peteghem C, De Saeger S (2010) Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed as analyzed by a multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS method. J Agric Food Chem 58:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wang S, Quan Y, Lee N, Kennedy IR (2006) Rapid determination of fumonisin B1 in food samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colloidal gold immunoassay. J Agric Food Chem 54:2491–2495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Molinelli A, Grossalber K, Krska R (2009) A rapid lateral flow test for the determination of total type B fumonisins in maize. Anal Bioanal Chem 395:1309–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    De Smet D, Dubruel P, Van Peteghem C, Schacht E, De Saeger S (2009) Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of fumonisin B analogues in bell pepper, rice and corn flakes. Food Addit Contam A 26:874–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Muscarella M, Magro SL, Nardiello D, Palermo C, Centonze D (2008) Development of a new analytical method for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in food products based on high performance liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection with post-column derivatization. J Chromatogr A 1203:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Dall’Asta C, Mangia M, Berthiller F, Molinelli A, Sulyok M, Schuhmacher R, Krska R, Galaverna G, Dossena A, Marchelli R (2009) Difficulties in fumonisin determination: the issue of hidden fumonisins. Anal Bioanal Chem 395:1335–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Oh KS, Scott PM, Chung SH (2009) Incomplete recoveries of fumonisins present in naturally contaminated corn foods from an immunoaffinity column. J AOAC Int 92:496–501. Erratum in: J AOAC Int 92:203AGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kim EK, Scott PM, Lau BP (2003) Hidden fumonisin in corn flakes. Food Addit Contam 20:161–169. Erratum in. Food Addit Contam 20:417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Park JW, Scott PM, Lau BP, Lewis DA (2004) Analysis of heat-processed corn foods for fumonisins and bound fumonisins. Food Addit Contam 21:1168–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Motta EL, Scott PM (2009) Bioaccessibility of total bound fumonisin from corn flakes. Mycotoxin Res 25:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hungerford JM (2010) Marine and freshwater toxins. J AOAC Int 93:6B–9BGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hess P (2010) Requirements for screening and confirmatory methods for the detection and quantification of marine biotoxins in end-product and official control. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1683–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Humpage AR, Magalhaes VF, Froscio SM (2010) Anal Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Bioanal Chem 397:1655–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Chan IO, Lam PK, Cheung RH, Lam MH, Wu RS (2005) Application of solid phase microextraction in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Analyst 130:1524–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Oehrle SA, Southwell B, Westrick J (2009) Detection of various freshwater cyanobacterial toxins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Toxicon 55:965–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Falconer IR, Humpage AR (2006) Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins in water supplies: Cylindrospermopsins. Environ Toxicol 21:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Seifert M, McGregor G, Eaglesham G, Wickramasinghe W, Shaw G (2007) First evidence for the production of cylindrospermopsin and deoxy-cylindrospermopsin by the freshwater benthic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck. Harmful Algae 6:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Bláhová L, Oravec M, Maršálek B, Šejnohová L, Šimek Z, Bláha L (2009) The first occurrence of the cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin cylindrospermopsin in the Czech Republic as determined by immunochemical and LC/MS methods. Toxicon 53:519–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Berry JP, Lind O (2010) First evidence of “paralytic shellfish toxins” and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in “tegogolo” snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis). Toxicon 55:930–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Messineo V, Melchiorre S, Di Corcia A, Gallo P, Bruno M (2010) Seasonal succession of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum blooms with cylindrospermopsin occurrence in the volcanic Lake Albano, Central Italy. Environ Toxicol 25:18–27Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kokociński M, Dziga D, Spoof L, Stefaniak K, Jurczak T, Mankiewicz-Boczek J, Meriluoto J (2009) First report of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in the shallow, eutrophic lakes of western Poland. Chemosphere 74:669–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Fastner J, Rücker J, Stüken A, Preuβel K, Nixdorf B, Chorus I, Köhler A, Wiedner C (2007) Occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in northeast Germany. Environ Toxicol 22:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Metcalf JS, Codd GA (2009) Cyanobacteria, neurotoxins and water resources: are there implications for human neurodegenerative disease? Amyotroph Lateral Scler 10(Suppl 2):74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Cox PA, Banack SA, Murch SJ, Rasmussen U, Tien G, Bidigare RR, Metcalf JS, Morrison LF, Codd GA, Bergman B (2005) Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:5074–5078. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:9734Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Brand LE, Pablo J, Compton A, Hammerschlag N, Mash DC (2010) Cyanobacterial blooms and the occurrence of the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in South Florida aquatic food webs. Harmful Algae 9:620–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Banack SA, Johnson HE, Cheng R, Cox PA (2007) Production of the neurotoxin BMAA by a marine cyanobacterium. Mar Drugs 5:180–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Scott PM, Niedzwiadek B, Rawn DFK, Lau BP-Y (2009) Liquid chromatographic determination of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in algae food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water. J Food Protect 72:1769–1763Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Johnson HE, King SR, Banack SA, Webster C, Callanaupa WJ, Cox PA (2008) Cyanobacteria (Nostoc commune) used as a dietary item in the Peruvian highlands produce the neurotoxic amino acid BMAA. J Ethnopharmacol 118:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Roney BR, Li R, Banack SA, Murch S, Honegger R, Cox PA (2009) Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China? Amyotroph Lateral Scler 10(Suppl 2):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Faassen EJ, Gillissen F, Zweers HAJ, Lürling M (2009) Determination of the neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (alpha-, gamma-diaminobutyric acid) by LC-MS/MS in Dutch urban waters with cyanobacterial blooms. Amyotroph Lateral Scler 10(Suppl 2):79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Krüger T, Mönch B, Oppenhäuser S, Luckas B (2010) LC–MS/MS determination of the isomeric neurotoxins BMAA (β-N-methylamino-l-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of Cycas revoluta and Lathyrus latifolius. Toxicon 55:547–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sampson HA (2004) Update on food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immun 113:805–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    van Heel DA, West J (2006) Recent advances in coeliac disease. Gut 55:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Scaravelli E, Brohée M, Marchelli R, van Hengel AJ (2009) The effect of heat treatment on the detection of peanut allergens as determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Anal Bioanal Chem 395:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Mondoulet L, Paty E, Drumare MF, Ah-Leung P, Scheinmann P, Willemot RM, Wal JM, Bernard H (2005) Influence of Thermal Processing on the Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins. J Agric Food Chem 53:4547–4553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lee P-W, Niemann LM, Lambrecht DM, Nordlee JA, Taylor SL (2009) Detection of Mustard, Egg, Milk, and Gluten in Salad Dressing Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). J Food Sci 74:T46–T50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Armentia A, Dueñas-Laita A, Pineda F, Herrero M, Martín B (2010) Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy. Allergol Immunopath 38:74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Osman AA, Uhlig HH, Valdes I, Amin M, Méndez E, Mothes T (2001) A monoclonal antibody that recognizes a potential coeliac-toxic repetitive pentapeptide epitope in gliadins. Eur J Gastroen Hepat 13:1189–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Skerritt JH, Hill AS (1990) Monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassays for determination of gluten in foods. J Agric Food Chem 38:1771–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    van Eckert R, Berghofer E, Ciclitira PJ, Chirdo F, Denery-Papini S, Ellis HJ, Ferranti P, Goodwin P, Immer U, Mamone G, Méndez E, Mothes T, Novalin S, Osman A, Rumbo M, Stern M, Thorell L, Whim A, Wieser H (2006) Towards a new gliadin reference material-isolation and characterisation. J Cereal Sci 43:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Wieser H, Koehler P (2009) Is the calculation of the gluten content by multiplying the prolamin content by a factor of 2 valid? Eur Food Res Technol 229:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Fenn JB, Mann M, Meng CK, Wong SF, Whitehouse CM (1989) Electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. Science 246:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Bland JM, Lax AR (2000) Isolation and characterization of a peanut maturity-associated protein. J Agric Food Chem 48:3275–3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Nilsson I, Utt M, Nilsson H-O, Ljungh Å, Wadström T (2000) Identification of peanut and hazelnut allergens by native two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 21:2678–2683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Shefcheck KJ, Musser SM (2004) Confirmation of the Allergenic Peanut Protein, Ara h 1, in a Model Food Matrix Using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) J. Agric Food Chem 52:2785–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Weber D, Raymond P, Ben-Rejeb S, Lau B (2006) Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using capillary liquid chromatography and nanoelectrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometer for the detection of milk allergens. J Agric Food Chem 54:1604–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Shefcheck K, Callahan JH, Musser SM (2006) Confirmation of peanut protein using peptide markers in dark chocolate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). J Agric Food Chem 54:7953–7959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Olsen JV, Ong S-E, Mann M (2004) Trypsin cleaves exclusively C-terminal to arginine and lysine residues. Mol Cell Prot 3:608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Rodriguez J, Gupta N, Smith RD, Pevzner PA (2008) Does trypsin cut before proline? J Prot Res 7:300–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Kottapalli KR, Payton P, Rakwal R, Agrawal GK, Shibato J, Burow M, Puppala N (2008) Proteomics analysis of mature seed of four peanut cultivars using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reveals distinct differential expression of storage, anti-nutritional, and allergenic proteins. Plant Sci 175:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Schmidt H, Gelhaus C, Latendorf T, Nebendahl M, Petersen A, Krause S, Leippe M, Becker W-M, Janssen O (2009) 2-D DIGE analysis of the proteome of extracts from peanut variants reveals striking differences in major allergen contents. Proteomics 9:3507–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sealey-Voyksner JA, Khosla C, Voyksner RD, Jorgenson JW (2010) Novel aspects of quantitation of immunogenic wheat gluten peptides by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:4167–4183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Abbott M, Hayward S, Ross W, Godefroy SB, Ulberth F, Van Hengel AJ, Roberts J, Akiyama H, Popping B, Yeung JM, Wehling P, Taylor SL, Poms RE, Delahaut P (2010) Validation procedures for quantitative food allergen ELISA methods: Community guidance and best practices. J AOAC Int 93:442–450Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Krska
    • 1
  • Adam Becalski
    • 2
  • Eric Braekevelt
    • 2
  • Terry Koerner
    • 2
  • Xu-Liang Cao
    • 2
  • Robert Dabeka
    • 2
  • Samuel Godefroy
    • 3
  • Ben Lau
    • 2
  • John Moisey
    • 2
  • Dorothea F. K. Rawn
    • 2
  • Peter M. Scott
    • 2
  • Zhongwen Wang
    • 2
  • Don Forsyth
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Center for Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Natural Resources and Life Sciences ViennaTullnAustria
  2. 2.Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health CanadaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations