Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 401, Issue 3, pp 803–808 | Cite as

Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

  • Dongming Zhang
  • Xiaohui Yan
  • Xinyi Zhang
  • Chenglin Liu
  • Ruishan Dang
  • Tiqiao Xiao
  • Peiping Zhu
Original Paper

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points.

Keywords

Acupuncture point Synchrotron radiation X-ray Phase contrast Microvessel 

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang Y, Yan XH, Liu CL et al (2006) Photoluminescence of acupuncture point “Waiqiu” in human superficial fascia. J Lumin 119–120:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yan XH, Zhang XY, Liu CL et al (2009) Do acupuncture points exist? Phys Med Biol 54(9):N143–N150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrew CA, Min P, Jessica RS et al (2010) Electrical impedance of acupuncture meridians: the relevance of subcutaneous collagenous bands. PLoS ONE 5(7):e11907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langevin HM, Yandow JA (2002) Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. Anat Rec 269(6):257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fitzgerald R (2000) Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging. Phys Today 53:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Momose A (2005) Recent advances in x-ray phase imaging. Jpn J Appl Phys 44:6355–6359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mosose A (1995) Demonstration of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 352(3):622–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dilmanian FA, Zhong Z, Ren B et al (2000) Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method. Phys Med Biol 45(4):933–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pfeiffer F, Kottler C, Bunk O, David C (2007) Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources. Phys Rev Lett 98:108105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raven C, Snigirev A, Snigireva I et al (1996) Phase-contrast microtomography with coherent high-energy synchrotron x rays. Appl Phys Lett 69(13):1826–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spanne P, Raven C, Snigireva I, Snigirev A (1999) In-line holography and phase-contrast microtomography with high energy x-rays. Phys Med Biol 44:741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shen XY, Wang H (1999) Acupuncture and Moxibustion. People’s Medical Publishing House, Beijing, p 311 and 372Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zheng LY, Xu ZX, Zhen XC et al (2003) Objective detection and labeling of the common acupuncture points in rabbits Shanghai. J Acupunct Moxibustion 22(5):26–29Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen RC, Xie HL, Luigi R et al (2010) Phase contrast micro-computed tomography of biological sample at SSRF. Tsinghua Sci Technol 15(1):102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kak AC, Slaney M (1988) Principles of computerized tomographic imaging. IEEE, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xie HL, Deng B, Du GH et al (2010) Advanced imaging technology and application of Shanghai synchrotron radiation source. Mod Phys 3:42–50Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (2011) SSRF homepage. http://ssrf.sinap.ac.cn/english/. Accessed 27 Feb 2011
  18. 18.
    Gao CJ, Chen EY, Cai GJ (2005) X-anatomy study and computer image analysis of distribution of microvessel density in pulmonary carcinoma. Anat Clin 10(2):98–100Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongming Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiaohui Yan
    • 1
  • Xinyi Zhang
    • 1
  • Chenglin Liu
    • 2
  • Ruishan Dang
    • 3
  • Tiqiao Xiao
    • 4
  • Peiping Zhu
    • 5
  1. 1.Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of PhysicsFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ CollegeYanchengChina
  3. 3.The Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations