Use of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analytical detection of illicit and controlled prescription drugs at room temperature via direct headspace sampling
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The first reported use of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) for the detection of a range of illicit and prescribed drugs is presented here. We describe the capabilities of PTR-TOF-MS to detect the following commonly used narcotics—ecstasy (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), morphine, codeine, cocaine and heroin—by the direct sampling of the headspace above small solid quantities (approximately 50 mg) of the drugs placed in glass vials at room temperature, i.e. with no heating of the sample and no pre-concentration. We demonstrate in this paper the ability to identify the drugs, both illicit and prescribed, using PTR-TOF-MS through the accurate m/z assignment of the protonated parent molecule to the second decimal place. We have also included in this study measurements with an impure sample of heroin, containing typical substances found in “street” heroin, to illustrate the use of the technology for more “real-world” samples. Therefore, in a real-world complex chemical environment, a high level of confidence can be placed on the detection of drugs. Although the protonated parent is observed for all drugs, the reactant channel leading to this species is not the only one observed and neither is it necessarily the most dominant. Details on the observed fragmentation behaviour are discussed and compared to electrospray ionisation MSn studies available in the literature.
KeywordsDrug detection PTR-TOF-MS Illicit drugs Heroin Cocaine Ecstasy Morphine Codeine
CAM and PW wish to acknowledge the EPSRC (EP/E027571/1) which in part supported this work. Work was partially supported by the Leopold Franzens Universität, Innsbruck, the Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck, the FWF and FFG, Wien and the European Commission, Brussels. FP and SJ acknowledge the support of the Community under a Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnership and Pathways (grant agreement no. 218065).
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