Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 400, Issue 2, pp 435–447 | Cite as

Comparison of stationary phases for packed column supercritical fluid chromatography based upon ionic liquid motifs: a study of cation and anion effects

  • Jonathan Smuts
  • Eranda Wanigasekara
  • Daniel W. ArmstrongEmail author
Original Paper


A class of stationary phases for packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), referred to as immobilized ionic liquids (IILs), is evaluated with a two-part study: (1) a cation effect study and (2) an anion effect study. The former study compares six different IILs (tripropylphosphonium, tributylphosphonium, methyl-imidazolium, benzyl-imidazolium, triphenylphosphonium, and 4,4′-bipyridyl) on silica gel, evaluating their performance in SFC with all the counter anions as trifluoroacetate (TFA). In the latter study, the stationary phase consisted of a bonded tributylphosphonium cation and varying counter anions (acetate, TFA, chloride, NTf 2 , and perchlorate). An order of retentivity was established for the cation effect study, and the favorable behavior of phosphonium-based stationary phases is reported for the first time in SFC. It was not possible to always assign a retentivity order for the anion effect study, but wide variations in selectivity are noted for different anions showing the tunable nature of this class of stationary phases.


SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) Separations/instrumentation Ionic liquids 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Supelco “Ionic Liquid Phases for S.F.C. Grant” for its monetary support.

Supplementary material

216_2011_4767_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (462 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 462 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Smuts
    • 1
  • Eranda Wanigasekara
    • 1
  • Daniel W. Armstrong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryThe University of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

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