Development of a new three-phase membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction method: determination of nitrite in tap water samples as model analytical application
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A novel and simple device for membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction is used for the first time in a three-phase system. The device consists of a glass vial containing the aqueous acceptor phase, whose septum of its screw stopper has been replaced by a sized piece of polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with n-decane. The vial is assembled to a volumetric flask containing the aqueous donor phase, and the membrane comes in contact alternatively with both donor and acceptor aqueous phases by orbital agitation. The device has been tested for the determination of nitrite in tap water samples, which is extensively carried out in routine analysis, as model analytical application. Experimental variables, such as the organic solvent used to form the supported liquid membrane, the volumes of both donor and acceptor phases, the orbital agitation rate, and the extraction time were studied and optimized in terms of enrichment factor. Under the selected working conditions, the analytical figures of merit for nitrite determination were a linearity range up to 50 ng mL−1, limits of detection and quantification of 0.15 and 0.50 ng mL−1, respectively, and a good repeatability (RSD < 10%). The method has been applied to four tap water samples of different origins, and accurate and precise results were achieved. Besides, the very low volume of organic solvent used, its low cost and the no-risk of cross-contamination are significant operational advantages.
KeywordsMembrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction Nitrite Supported liquid membrane Tap water Three-phase microextraction system
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Spanish Government (Projects CTQ2009-12709 and CTQ2006-01851).
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