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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 400, Issue 8, pp 2457–2462 | Cite as

QCM gas phase detection with ceramic materials—VOCs and oil vapors

  • Usman Latif
  • Andreas Rohrer
  • Peter A. Lieberzeit
  • Franz L. DickertEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Titanate sol–gel layers imprinted with carbonic acids were used as sensitive layers on quartz crystal microbalance. These functionalized ceramics enable us detection of volatile organic compounds such as ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-/iso-octane, and n-decane. Variation of the precursors (i.e., tetrabutoxy titanium, tetrapropoxy titanium, tetraethoxy titanium) allows us to tune the sensitivity of the material by a factor of 7. Sensitivity as a function of precursors leads to selective inclusion of n-butanol vapors down to 1 ppm. The selectivity of materials is optimized to differentiate between isomers, e.g., n- and iso-octane. The results can be rationalized by correlating the sensor effects of hydrocarbons with the Wiener index. A mass-sensitive sensor based on titanate layer was also developed for monitoring emanation of degraded engine oil. Heating the sensor by a meander avoids vapor condensation. Thus, a continuously working oil quality sensor was designed.

Keywords

Sensors Titanate sol–gel layers Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usman Latif
    • 1
  • Andreas Rohrer
    • 1
  • Peter A. Lieberzeit
    • 1
  • Franz L. Dickert
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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