Glycation and oxidation of histones H2B and H1: in vitro study and characterization by mass spectrometry
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Among the post-translational modifications, oxidation and glycation are of special interest, especially in diseases such as diabetes, and in aging. The synergistic interaction between glycation and oxidation, also known as “glycoxidation” is highly relevant due to its involvement in the production of deleterious changes at the molecular level. Non-enzymatic damage to nuclear proteins has potentially severe consequences for the maintenance of genomic integrity . In this report, we study glycated histones and its in vitro oxidation. Data concerning the modifications that occurred in the histones were obtained by analysis of enzymatic digests (Glu-C and Arg-C) of unmodified and glycated histones, obtained before and after oxidation. Analysis was then performed using a MALDI-MS/MS-based approach combined with nano liquid chromatography. This approach allowed us to identify histone H2B and H1 specific-sites of oxidation and to distinguish the most affected residues for each histone. The results showed the occurrence of a cumulative effect of oxidative damage in the glycated histones when subjected to in vitro oxidation, suggesting that structural changes caused by glycation induces histones to a pro-oxidant state. Comparing the data of oxidized glycated histones with data from unmodified oxidized histones, using the same model of oxidation, the results clearly show that these oxidative modifications occur earlier and more extensively in glycated histones. Furthermore, the results pointed to an increased oxidative damage in the vicinity of the glycated residues.
KeywordsHistones Glycation Protein oxidation Mass spectrometry
The authors express their appreciation for the financial support provided by the “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” (Grant no SFRH/BD/14963/2004 and PTDC/QUI/68408/2006).
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