Classification and identification of organic binding media in artworks by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis
- 721 Downloads
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique to study organic materials. However, in Cultural Heritage, since the sample under analysis is always a complicated matrix of several materials, data analysis performed through peak-by-peak comparisons of sample spectra with those of standard compounds is a tedious method that does not always provide good results. To overcome this problem, a chemometric model based on principal component analysis was developed to classify and identify organic binding media in artworks. The model allows the differentiation of five families of binders: drying oils, waxes, proteins, gums, and resins, taking into account the absorption bands in two characteristic spectral windows: C–H stretching and carbonyl band. This new methodology was applied in the characterization of binders in three kinds of artworks: papers of historical, archeological, and artistic value, easel paintings, and polychromed stone-based sculptures.
KeywordBinder FTIR Artwork PCA
A. Sarmiento is grateful to the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science for his FPU fellowship. This work was partially funded by the FP6 Project PAPERTECH (ref. INCO-CT-2004-509095) and by the Spanish MEC Project DILICO (ref. CTQ2005-09267-C02-01/PPQ). Authors would like to acknowledge Eleiz Museoa and Diputación Foral de Álava for letting them access to the real samples.
- 2.Ferreti M (1993) Scientific Investigations of Works of Art. ICCROM, RomaGoogle Scholar
- 13.Garcia M, Vendrell M (2002) The glasses of the Transept’s Rosette of the Cathedral of Tarragona: Characterization, classification and decay. Bol Soc Esp Ceram V 41:217–224Google Scholar
- 19.Ammannati N, Martellucci E, Presicce CP, Carruba AM (2001) The restoration of the Capitoline she wolf: Analysis of the bronze and of the corrosion patina by optical and scanning electron microscopes. Metallurgia Ital 93:43–50Google Scholar
- 24.Domenech-Carbó MT, Casas-Catalan MJ, Domenech-Carbo A, Mateo-Castro R, Gimeno-Adelantado JV, Bosch-Reig F (2001) Analytical study of canvas painting collection from the Basilica de la Virgen de los Desamparados using SEM/EDX, FR-IR, GC and electrochemical techniques. Anal Bioanal Chem 369:571–575Google Scholar
- 27.Castro K, Sarmiento A, Maguregui M, Martinez-Arkarazo I, Etxebarria N, Angulo M, Urrutikoetxea-Barrutia M, Gonzalez-Cembellin JM, Madariaga JM (2008) Multianalytical approach to the analysis of english polychromed alabaster sculptures: μ-Raman, μ-EDXRF and FTIR spectroscopies. Anal Bioanal Chem 392:755–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Pérez-Alonso M, Castro K, Olazabal MA, Madariaga JM (2006) In: Pérez-Arantegui J (ed) 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry. Institución Fernando el Católico (No. 2.621), ZaragozaGoogle Scholar
- 33.Camo Asa (2005) The Unscrambler® 7.6. Trodheim, NorwayGoogle Scholar
- 35.Derrick MR, Stuliz D, Landry JM (1999) Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar