Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 399, Issue 4, pp 1689–1697 | Cite as

3-Deoxygalactosone, a new glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids: Identification, quantification by HPLC/DAD/MSMS and its pathway of formation

  • Stefan Mittelmaier
  • Michael Fünfrocken
  • Dominik Fenn
  • Monika Pischetsrieder
Original Paper


Heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids leads to the formation of glucose degradation products (GDPs), which considerably impair long-term application of PD. Knowledge of the exact composition of GDPs present in a PD fluid is important to improve the biocompatibility of dialysis solutions. The present study conducted a targeted screening for novel GDPs with α-dicarbonyl structure in PD fluids. Thus, 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) was identified for the first time in PD fluids. Quantification of 3-DGal was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/DAD/MSMS after derivatization with o-phenylendiamine to yield the quinoxaline derivative. Baseline separation of all α-dicarbonyl GDPs, particularly of the diastereomers 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-DGal, required the application of a polar, phenyl-based RP column for HPLC and additional pH-gradient elution. Concentrations of 3-DGal ranged between 55.8 and 136.9 μM in single-chamber PD fluids, and between 2.5 and 12.4 μM in double-chamber PD fluids. In solutions containing glucose, 3-DGal is formed from 3-DG via the intermediate 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE). Further studies are now required to determine the (patho-)physiological properties of 3-DGal.


Unexpected formation of 3-deoxygalactosone from glucose in peritoneal dialysis fluids


[alpha]-Dicarbonyl compounds Glucose degradation products (GDPs) 3-Deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) HPLC Peritoneal dialysis fluid Quinoxaline derivatives 



The study was supported by Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH, Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Mittelmaier
    • 1
  • Michael Fünfrocken
    • 2
  • Dominik Fenn
    • 2
  • Monika Pischetsrieder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Food Chemistry, Emil Fischer CenterUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbHSt.WendelGermany

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