A new bacterial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection based on a three-dimensional carbon nanotubes bioarchitecture
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Trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected human carcinogen, is one of the most common volatile groundwater contaminants. Many different methodologies have already been developed for the determination of TCE and its degradation products in water, but most of them are costly, time-consuming and require well-trained operators. In this work, a fast, sensitive and miniaturised whole cell conductometric biosensor was developed for the determination of trichloroethylene. The biosensor assembly was prepared by immobilising Pseudomonas putida F1 bacteria (PpF1) at the surface of gold interdigitated microelectrodes through a three-dimensional alkanethiol self-assembly monolayer/carbon nanotube architecture functionalised with Pseudomonas antibodies. The biosensor response was linear from 0.07 to 100 μM of TCE (9–13,100 μg L−1). No significant loss of the enzymatic activity was observed after 5 weeks of storage at 4 °C in the M457 pH 7 defined medium (two or three measurements per week). Ninety-two per cent of the initial signal still remained after 7 weeks. The biosensor response to TCE was not significantly affected by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride and, in a limited way, by phenol. Toluene was the major interference found. The bacterial biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of TCE in spiked groundwater samples and in six water samples collected in an urban industrial site contaminated with TCE. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis of these samples confirmed the biosensor measurements.
KeywordsTrichloroethylene Whole cell biosensor Pseudomonas putida F1 Interdigitated microelectrodes Single-wall carbon nanotubes Self-assembly monolayer
This work was supported by the French National Agency for Research (EVASOL project ANR-07-ECOT 005-03). Joan Bausells also acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for its support through the Nanoselect project (CSD2007-00041) of the Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Programme.
Many thanks to Dr. Rebecca Parales from the University of California (Davis) for providing P. putida F1 mutant defective in todC1 gene, Eric Dugat-Bony from the Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome et Environnement of Clermont-Ferrand for his precious advices, and Jean-Yves Richard and C. Curver from Sita Remediation (Suez group) for providing field water samples and HS-GC/MS results.
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