Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 399, Issue 9, pp 2921–2937 | Cite as

Study of behaviour on simulated daylight ageing of artists’ acrylic and poly(vinyl acetate) paint films

  • María Teresa Doménech-CarbóEmail author
  • Miguel F. Silva
  • Elvira Aura-Castro
  • Laura Fuster-López
  • Stephan Kröner
  • María Luisa Martínez-Bazán
  • Xavier Más-Barberá
  • Marion F. Mecklenburg
  • Laura Osete-Cortina
  • Antonio Doménech
  • José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado
  • Dolores Julia Yusá-Marco
Original Paper


This work proposes a multi-method approach that combines advanced microscopy (SEM/EDX, AFM) and spectroscopy (UV-vis and FTIR) techniques. This approach not only characterises the behaviour of the additives of two commercial poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and acrylic emulsion paints but also simultaneously characterises the changes in chemical composition and morphology observed in the paint films as a result of ageing due to the paints being exposed to an intense source of simulated daylight. In parallel, a series of mechanical tests were performed that correlate the chemical changes in composition and the changes observed in the films’ mechanical properties. This work was a comparative study between both types of acrylic and PVAc paints. The results obtained are of great interest for the modern paint conservation field as they provide valuable information on the mid- and long-term behaviours of these synthetic paints.


Tensile test of phthalocianyne blue Liquitex® paint film


Surfactant Acrylic artists’ paint PVAc paint FTIR spectroscopy AFM Tensile tests 



Financial support is gratefully acknowledged from the Spanish “I+D+I MICINN” project CTQ2008-06727-C03-01/BQU supported by ERDEF funds and from the “Generalitat Valenciana” I+D project ACOMP/2009/171 and the AP2006-3223 project ascribed to the Predoctoral Stages Programme of Universitary Researchers in Spanish Universities and Research Centres from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN). The authors wish to thank Mr. Manuel Planes i Insausti and Dr. José Luis Moya López, the technical supervisors responsible for the Electron Microscopy Service at the Polytechnic University of Valencia.


  1. 1.
    Learner TJS (2004) Analysis of modern paints. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ormsby B, Learner T (2009) Rev Conserv 10:29–42Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Silva MF, Doménech-Carbó MT, Fuster-López L, Mecklenburg MF, Martin-Rey S (2010) Anal Bioanal Chem 397:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hoogland FG, Boon JJ (2009) Int J Mass Spectrom 284:72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoogland FG, Boon JJ (2009) Int J Mass Spectrom 284:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Learner T, Chiantore O, Scalarone D (2002) In: Preprints ICOM Committee for Conservation 13th Triennial Meeting. James & James, London, pp 911–919Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Whitmore PM, Colaluca VG (1995) Stud Conserv 40:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chiantore O, Trossarelli L, Lazzari M (2000) Polymer 41:1657–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiantore O, Lazzari M (2001) Polymer 42:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scalarone D, Chiantore O, Learner T (2005) In: Preprints ICOM Committee for Conservation 14th Triennial Meeting. James & James/Earthscan, London, pp 350–358Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melo MJ, Bracci S, Camaiti M, Chiantore O, Piacenti F (1999) Polym Degrad Stab 66:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferreira JL, Melo MJ, Ramos AM (2010) Polym Degrad Stab 95:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schultz AR (1961) J Phys Chem 65:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Allara DL (1975) Environ Health Perspect 11:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferreira JL, Melo MJ, Ramos AM (2010) Polym Degrad Stab 95:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whitmore PM, Colaluca VG, Farrell E (1996) Stud Conserv 41:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Digney-Peer S, Burnstock A, Learner T, Khanjian H, Hoogland F, Boon J (2004) In: Roy A, Smith P (eds) Modern art. International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London, pp 202–207Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ormsby B, Hoogland F, Smithen P, Miliani C, Learner T (2008) In: Proceedings of the 15th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation. James & James, London, pp 857–865Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Doménech-Carbó MT, Bitossi G, Osete-Cortina L, de la Cruz-Cañizares J, Yusá-Marco DJ (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1371–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Feller RL (1978) In: Proceedings of the 5th Trienial Meeting ICOM Committee for Conservation, James & James, London, 78/16/4/1-11Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bunsen RW, Roscoe HE (1859) Philos Trans R Soc Lond 149:879–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schwarzschild K (1990) Astrophys J 11:89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amalvy JI, Soria DB (1996) Prog Org Coat 28:279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Horgnies M, Darque-Ceretti E, Combarieu R (2003) Prog Org Coat 47:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hellgren ACh, Weissenborn P, Holmberg K (1999) Prog Org Coat 35:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chiantore O (2002) In: Mattison G (ed) The Fifth Annual Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, pp 92–95Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bradford EB, Vanderhoff JW (1966) J Macromol Chem 1:335–360Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bradford EB, Vanderhoff JW (1972) J Macromol Sci Phys B6:671–694Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steward PA, Hearn J, Wilkinson MC (2000) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 86:195–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Doménech-Carbó MT, Silva MF, Aura-Castro E, Doménech-Carbó A, Fuster-López L, Gimeno-Adelantado JV, Kröner SU, Martínez-Bazán ML, Más-Barberá X, Mecklenburg MF, Osete-Cortina L, Yusá-Marco DJ (2010) In: Fuster L, Doménech MT, Mecklenburg MF, Charola H (eds) Preprints of cleaning 2010—new insights into the cleaning of paintings. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, pp 39–40Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zosel A, Ley G (1992) Polym Bull 27:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zosel A, Ley G (1993) Macromolecules 26:2222–2227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jablonski E, Learner T, Hayes J, Golden Mark (2003) Rev Conserv 4:1–13Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Teresa Doménech-Carbó
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miguel F. Silva
    • 1
  • Elvira Aura-Castro
    • 1
  • Laura Fuster-López
    • 1
  • Stephan Kröner
    • 1
  • María Luisa Martínez-Bazán
    • 1
  • Xavier Más-Barberá
    • 1
  • Marion F. Mecklenburg
    • 2
  • Laura Osete-Cortina
    • 1
  • Antonio Doménech
    • 3
  • José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado
    • 3
  • Dolores Julia Yusá-Marco
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Restauración del PatrimonioUniversidad Politécnica de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian InstitutionSuitlandUSA
  3. 3.Dpt. Química Analítica. Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad de ValenciaBurjassotSpain

Personalised recommendations