A simple method of surface functionalisation for immuno-specific immobilisation of proteins
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We present a new and advanced methodology, developed for surface functionalisation of gold and to study immobilisation of an immuno-specific system of proteins. A combination of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and Raman spectroscopy techniques allowed a complete understanding of the system starting from surface functionalisation and progressing to the functional structure analysis of immobilised proteins. A simple electrochemical procedure was formulated to prepare sulphonyl chloride terminated gold surfaces that form a strong sulphonamide bond with the receptor protein staphylococcal protein A (SpA). On the SpA grafted surfaces, the immobilisation of a human IgG and consecutive binding of an immuno-specific anti-human IgG was observed. The surface functional groups form a strong interaction with SpA without disturbing its functional properties. The native functional structure of SpA and also the IgGs was found to be retained in their immobilised state.