This paper reports on an inkjet printing method for the fabrication of lateral flow immunochromatographic devices made from a single piece of filter paper by patterning microfluidic channels and dispensing immunosensing inks, requiring only a single printing apparatus. This “paperfluidic” immunosensing device allows for a less time-consuming and more low-cost fabrication compared with the conventional immunochromatographic strips requiring multiple pads, plastic or nylon backing, and a plastic case. A sandwich immunoreaction was performed on the patterned immunosensing paper device, and the sensitivity of the device was optimized with an IgG model analyte. Inkjet-printed antibodies on the test line and the control line were immobilized by physical adsorption, resulting in a very simple fabrication method applicable for pure cellulose surfaces. The color intensity in the test line and the control line was determined both by naked eye and by means of a color scanner in combination with a simple computer program. With the resulting paperfluidic immunosensing device, human IgG concentrations at least down to 10 μg/l could be detected within 20 min. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a total multianalyte sensing system, a combined immuno-chemical sensing device was also fabricated by patterning an additional microfluidic channel for a chemical assay onto the same paper substrate. This low-cost multianalyte paperfluidic sensing device thus demonstrates the feasibility of simple, portable, and disposable tools for pathogen detection in the field of medical, environmental, and food analyses, possibly resulting in useful devices in remote settings and less-industrialized countries.
Immunochromatography Chemical sensor Microfluidic device Paper Color analysis