Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 7, pp 3155–3158 | Cite as

Enantioselective piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for d-methamphetamine based on a molecularly imprinted polymer

  • Leveriza F. Arenas
  • Benilda S. Ebarvia
  • Fortunato B. SevillaIIIEmail author
Technical Note


A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed for enantioselective and quantitative analysis of d-(+)-methamphetamine (d(+)-MA). The sensor was produced by bulk polymerization and the resulting MIP was then coated on the gold electrode of an AT-cut quartz crystal. Conditions such as volume of polymer coating, curing time, type of PQC, baseline solvent, pH, and buffer type were found to affect the sensor response and were therefore optimized. The PQC-MIP gave a stable response to different concentrations of d(+)-MA standard solutions (response time = 10 to 100 s) with good repeatability (RSD = 0.03 to 3.09%; n = 3), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.55%; n = 5), and good reversibility (RSD = 0.36%; n = 3). The linear range of the sensor covered five orders of magnitude of analyte concentration, ranging from 10−5 to 10−1 μg mL−1, and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.9 pg d(+)-MA mL−1 . The sensor had a highly enantioselective response to d(+)-MA compared with its response to l(−)-MA, racemic MA, and phentermine. The developed sensor was validated by applying it to human urine samples from drug-free individuals spiked with standard d(+)-MA and from a confirmed MA user. Use of the standard addition method (SAM) and samples spiked with d(+)-MA at levels ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 1 × 10−2 μg mL−1 showed recovery was good (95.3 to 110.9%).


Piezoelectric quartz crystal Molecularly imprinted polymer Methamphetamine Enantioselective sensor 


  1. 1.
    Jirovsky D, Lemr K, Sevcık J, Smysl B, Stransky Z (1998) Forensic Sci Int 96:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2006) Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Makahara Y, Sekine H (1984) Forensic Sci Int 26:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aoki K, Yoshida T, Kuroiwa Y (1996) Forensic Sci Int 80:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miura N, Higobashi H, Sakai G, Takeyasub A, Uda T, Yamazoe N (1993) Sens Actuators B: Chem 13:188–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yagiuda K, Hemmi A, Ito S, Asano Y, Fushinuki Y, Chen C, Karube I (1996) Biosens Bioelectron 11:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hifumi E, Kanmei R, Ishimaru M, Shimizu K, Ohtaki M, Uda T (1996) J Ferment Bioeng 82:417–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sakai G, Nakata S, Uda T, Miura N, Yamazoe N (1999) Electrochim Acta 44:3849–3854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Svenson J, Nicholls I (2001) Anal Chim Acta 435:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farrington K, Magnerb E, Regan F (2006) Anal Chim Acta 566:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu F, Lin J, Ng SC, Sze H (2006) Sens Actuators B: Chem 113:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li J, Zhao J, Wei X (2009) Sens Actuators B: Chem 140:663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guerra MR, Chianella I, Piletska EV, Karim K, Turner APF, Piletsky SA (2009) Analyst 134:1565–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ebarvia BS, Sevilla F III (2005) Sens Actuators B: Chem 107:782–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ebarvia BS, Binag CA, Sevilla F III (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 378:1331–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watanabe K, Okada K (1993) Anal Chim Acta 274:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leveriza F. Arenas
    • 1
  • Benilda S. Ebarvia
    • 1
  • Fortunato B. SevillaIII
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for the Natural SciencesUniversity of Santo Tomas Graduate SchoolManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations