Enantioselective piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for d-methamphetamine based on a molecularly imprinted polymer
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A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed for enantioselective and quantitative analysis of d-(+)-methamphetamine (d(+)-MA). The sensor was produced by bulk polymerization and the resulting MIP was then coated on the gold electrode of an AT-cut quartz crystal. Conditions such as volume of polymer coating, curing time, type of PQC, baseline solvent, pH, and buffer type were found to affect the sensor response and were therefore optimized. The PQC-MIP gave a stable response to different concentrations of d(+)-MA standard solutions (response time = 10 to 100 s) with good repeatability (RSD = 0.03 to 3.09%; n = 3), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.55%; n = 5), and good reversibility (RSD = 0.36%; n = 3). The linear range of the sensor covered five orders of magnitude of analyte concentration, ranging from 10−5 to 10−1 μg mL−1, and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.9 pg d(+)-MA mL−1 . The sensor had a highly enantioselective response to d(+)-MA compared with its response to l(−)-MA, racemic MA, and phentermine. The developed sensor was validated by applying it to human urine samples from drug-free individuals spiked with standard d(+)-MA and from a confirmed MA user. Use of the standard addition method (SAM) and samples spiked with d(+)-MA at levels ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 1 × 10−2 μg mL−1 showed recovery was good (95.3 to 110.9%).
KeywordsPiezoelectric quartz crystal Molecularly imprinted polymer Methamphetamine Enantioselective sensor
- 2.United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2006) Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar