Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 7, pp 3097–3106 | Cite as

Highly sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer extraction

  • Reddithota J. KrupadamEmail author
  • Bhagyashree Bhagat
  • Muntazir S. Khan
Original Paper


A method based on solid--phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed to determine five probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecularly imprinted poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was chosen as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for PAHs. The conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example surface properties, concentration of PAHs, and equilibration times were evaluated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, pre-concentration factors for MIP-SPE ranged between 80 and 93 for 10 mL ambient air dust leachate. PAHs recoveries from MIP-SPE after extraction from air dust were between 85% and 97% and calibration graphs of the PAHs showed a good linearity between 10 and 1000 ng L−1 (r = 0.99). The extraction efficiency of MIP for PAHs was compared with that of commercially available SPE materials—powdered activated carbon (PAC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD)—and it was shown that the extraction capacity of the MIP was better than that of the other two SPE materials. Organic matter in air dust had no effect on MIP extraction, which produced a clean extract for GC-MS analysis. The detection limit of the method proposed in this article is 0.15 ng L−1 for benzo[a]pyrene, which is a marker molecule of air pollution. The method has been applied to the determination of probable carcinogenic PAHs in air dust of industrial zones and satisfactory results were obtained.


A multi-template imprinted polymer selectively extracted carcinogenic PAHs from air dust samples resulted in improvement of LOD of GC-MS


Ambient air samples Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Solid-phase extraction Molecularly imprinted polymers GC-MS Environmental analysis 



This work was supported by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Planning Commission of India under the Supra Institutional Project: Molecular Environmental Science (grant number SIP-16/3.3). B.B wishes to thank the CSIR for financial help through a Senior Research Fellowship.

Supplementary material

216_2010_3858_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (89 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 89.1 kb)


  1. 1.
    National Research Council (1983) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation and effects. Committee on pyrene and selected analogues, Board on Toxicology and Environmental health hazard, Commission of Life Sciences. National Academy of Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Monn Ch, Fuchs A, Hogger D, Junker M, Kogleschatz D, Roth N (1997) Sci Total Environ 208:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albert RE, Miller ML, Cody T, Andringa A, Shukla R, Baxter SC (1991) Carcinogenesis 12:1273–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vardar N, Esen F, Tasdemir Y (2008) Environ Pollut 2008:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bozlaker A, Muezzingollu A, Odabassi M (2008) J Hazard Mater 153:1093–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    US EPA (2002) Compendium of methods for the determination of toxic organic compound in ambient air, EPA/600/4-89-018 (
  7. 7.
    Maisoneette C, Simon P, Hennion MC, Pichon V (2006) J Chromatogr A 1120:186–193Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karlitschek P, Lewitzka F, Bunting U, Niederkruger M, Marowsky G (1998) Appl Phys B 67:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lao RC, Thomas RS, Oja H, Dubois L (1973) Anal Chem 45:908–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsai PJ, Sheih HY, Lee WJ (2002) J Hazard Mater 91:25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ouyang G, Chen Y, Pawliszyn J (2005) Anal Chem 77:7319–7325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matschulat D, Deng A, Niessner R, Knopp D (2005) Analyst 130:1078–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu X, Hu Y, Li G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1147:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caro E, Marcé RM, Cormack PAG, Sherrington DC, Borrull F (2004) J Chromatogr A 1047:175–180Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mena ML, Martínez-Ruiz P, Reviejo AJ, Pingarrón JM (2002) Anal Chim Acta 451:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koster EHM, Crescenzi C, Hoedt W, Ensing K, Jong GJ (2001) Anal Chem 73:3140–3145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baggiani CL, Anfossi P, Baravalle D, Giovannoli G, Giraudi G (2007) Anal Bioanal Chem 389:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krupadam RJ, Ahuja R, Wate SR (2007) Sens Actuators B 124:444–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krupadam RJ, Bhagat B, Khan MS, Wate SR (2009) J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9:5441–5447CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reddithota J. Krupadam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bhagyashree Bhagat
    • 1
  • Muntazir S. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.National Environmental Engineering Research InstituteNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations