Key parameters for the development of a NIR microscopic method for the quantification of processed by-products of animal origin in compound feedingstuffs
- 160 Downloads
The aim of this work is to show new advances in the analytical methods developed in the frame of the ban of processed animal by-products in compound feed that is currently applied within the European Union. With this aim, studies to develop a quantitative near infrared microscopy (NIRM) approach have been undertaken in order to fulfil future requirements of European legislation like the introduction of tolerance levels that would require for official control purposes the availability of specific quantitative methods. The capabilities of the NIRM method have been improved; no sample preparation is required and the acquisition parameters are optimised. Both the gross and the fine fractions of the samples are considered; the reflexion mode was used to analyse the gross raw fraction and the transmission mode was chosen to analyse the fine raw fraction. Parameters for reflexion analyses were already fixed in our previous studies while those of transmission mode have been determined in the present study. Because particles are too small, it is difficult to mark them; spectra were collected using the mapping technique. Quantitative analyses have been carried out for different percentages of adulteration (0.5, 1, 2 and 5%). Results were depending on the particle size distribution of the feed and of the fish meal which led to experimental values of adulteration varying between 0.13–0.92%, 0.93–3.7%, 2.42–5.83% and 1.95–9.39% for theoretical percentages of adulteration equal to 0.5, 1, 2 and 5%, respectively. The established protocol with the key parameters proposed has to be considered for the development of an accurate method of quantification.
KeywordsNIR microscopy Transmission Mapping Animal feed Contamination Quantification
We thank the European Commission, through the Sixth Framework Programme (under the Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area Specific Targeted Project) as part of the SAFEED-PAP project (FOOD-CT-2006-036221) (http://safeedpap.feedsafety.org/) for funding partly this work.
The information contained in this article reflects the authors’ views; the European Commission is not liable for any use of the information contained therein.
- 1.Gizzi G, van Raamsdonk LWD, Baeten V, Murray I, Berben G, Brambilla G, von Holst C (2003) An overview of tests for animal tissues in animal feeds used in the public health response against BSE. Sci Technical Rev 22 (1)Google Scholar
- 2.European Commission (1994) Commission Decision (94/381/EC) concerning certain protection measures with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the feeding of mammalian derived protein. In: Official Journal of the European Communities, 7 July 1994, L172, pp 23-24Google Scholar
- 3.Council of the European Union (2000) Council Directive 2000/766/EC of 4 December 2000 concerning certain protection measures with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the feeding of animal protein. Official Journal European Communities, L 306, 32Google Scholar
- 4.European Commission. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1234/2003 of 10 July 2003 amending Annexes I, IV and XI to Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 1326/2001 as regards transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and animal feeding. In Official Journal of the European Union, 11 July 2003, L173Google Scholar
- 5.European Commission. Commission regulation (EC) No 152/2009 of 27 January 2009 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. In Official Journal of the European Union, 16.2.2009, L54Google Scholar
- 8.Frezza D, Giambra V, Chegdani F, Fontana C, Maccabiani G, Losio N, Faggionato E, Chiappini B, Vaccari G, von Holst C, Lanni L, Saccares S, Ajmone-Marsan P (2008) Standard and light-cycler PCR methods for animal DNA species detection in animal feedstuffs. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 9:18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Baeten V, Dardenne P (2001) The contribution of near infrared spectroscopy to the fight against the mad cow epidemic. NIRS news 12(6):12–13Google Scholar
- 13.Garrido A, Fernández V (1998) NIRS technology for the quantitative prediction of the percentage of meat and bone meal added to a feed compound. A feasibility study. In: Report of the Workshop “Identification of animal ingredients in compound feeds” CEMA–DG VI–SMT Program, Lyngby, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
- 14.Piraux F, Dardenne P (1999) Feed authentification by near-infrared microscopy. In Davies AMC, Giangiacomo R (eds) proc. Of the 9th International Conference on Near-Infrared spectroscopy. Verona, Italy, June 1999Google Scholar
- 15.Baeten V, Renier AM, Sinnaeve G, Dardenne P (2001) Analyses of feedingstuffs by near infrared microscopy (NIRM): detection and quantification meat and bone meal, proceeding in the sixth Food authenticity and safety International Symposium (FASIS), Nantes, France, (November 28-30 2001), 1-11Google Scholar
- 16.Fernández Pierna JA, Dardenne P, Baeten V. In-house validation of a near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging method for detecting processed animal proteins (PAP) in compound feed (submitted to Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy)Google Scholar
- 19.De la Haba MJ, Fernández Pierna JA, Fumière O, Garrido-Varo A, Guerrero JE, Pérez-Marín D, Dardenne P, Baeten V (2007) Discrimination of fish bones from other animal bones in the sedimented fraction of compound feeds by near infrared microscopy. J Near Infrared Spectrosc 15:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Veys P, Baeten V, Berben G, Boix A, von Holst C (2008) CRL-AP Interlaboratory Study 2007 (Final report)Google Scholar
- 22.Veys P, Baeten V (2007) CRL-AP Interlaboratory study 2006 Final report. Gembloux, Belgium: CRA-W, http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/resources/interlaboratory2006_en.pdf, (18.11.08)
- 23.Veys P, Baeten V (2008) CRL-AP Interlaboratory study 2007 Final report. Gembloux, Belgium: CRA-WGoogle Scholar
- 24.Baeten V, Renier AM, Sinnaeve G, Dardenne P (2001) Analyses of feedingstuffs by near infrared microscopy (NIRM): detection and quantification meat and bone meal, proceeding in the sixth Food authenticity and safety International Symposium (FADIS), Nantes, France, (November 28-30 2001), 1-11Google Scholar
- 26.Baeten V, Renier AM, Sinnaeve G, Dardenne P (2001) Analyses of feedingstuffs by near infrared microscopy (NIRM): detection and quantification meat and bone meal, proceeding in the sixth Food authenticity and safety International Symposium (FASIS), Nantes, France, (November 28-30 2001), 1-11Google Scholar
- 27.Baeten V, Michotte Renier A, Sinnaeve G, Garrido-Varo A, Dardenne P (2004) Analysis of the sediment fraction of feed by Near-Infrared Microscopy (NIRM). In Proc. Of the 11th International Conference on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (Davies T. and Garrido-Varo A.), Cordoba, Spain, 6-11 April 2003Google Scholar