Evaluation of the novel passive sampler for cyanobacterial toxins microcystins under various conditions including field sampling
- 281 Downloads
In the present study, we have evaluated the effectiveness of a passive sampler for polar organic chemicals to accumulate a group of widespread and hazardous tumor-promoting toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms—microcystins (MC). The previously optimized configuration of the sampler based on polycarbonate membrane and Oasis HLB sorbent (2.75 mg/cm2) was validated under various exposure scenarios in laboratory and field. Calibration of the passive sampler conducted under variable conditions and concentrations of MC revealed linearity of the sampling up to 4 weeks. The sampling rates of microcystins for two different exposure scenarios were derived (e.g., MC-LR: R s = 0.017 L/day under static and 0.087 L/d under turbulent conditions). R s values were further used for calculations of time-weighted average concentrations in natural water. Improved sensitivity and selectivity of the in-house-made sampler was observed in comparison with the commercially available Polar Organic Compound Integrative Sampler (POCIS). Comparisons of grab and passive sampling methods were performed during cyanobacterial water bloom season in the Brno reservoir, Czech Republic in 2008. Data obtained by passive sampling provided a more relevant picture of the situation and enabled better assessment of potential risks. The present study demonstrated that the modification of POCIS is suitable for monitoring of occurrence and retrospective estimations of microcystin water concentrations, especially with respect to the control of drinking water quality.
KeywordsPassive sampling POCIS Microcystin Cyanobacteria
Research was supported by the grants of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic no. 1M0571 (Research Centre for Bioindication and Revitalization) and no. VZ 0021622412 (INCHEMBIOL).
- 2.WHO (1998) In: Guidelines for Safe Recreational-water Environments, Volume 1: Coastal and Freshwaters, Draft for Consultation. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- 3.Marsalek B, Blaha L, Turanek J, Neca J (2001) In: Cyanotoxins - occurence, causes, consequences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 5.Kuiper-Goodman T, Falconer IR, Fitzgerald DJ (1999) In: Toxic Cyanobacteria in water: a guide to public health significance, monitoring and management. E&FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 6.WHO (1998) Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 8.Huckins JN, Manuweera GK, Petty JD, Lebo JA, Gibson VL, Meadows JC (1992) Abstr Pap - Am Chem Soc 204:38, ENVRGoogle Scholar
- 16.Greenwood R, Mills G, Vrana B (2007) Passive sampling techniques in environmental monitoring. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 17.ISO20179 (2005) Water quality: determination of microcystin—method by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. ISO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar