Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 3, pp 1029–1038 | Cite as

Highly selective and non-conventional sorbents for the determination of biomarkers in urine by liquid chromatography

  • M. Cruz-Vera
  • R. Lucena
  • S. Cárdenas
  • M. ValcárcelEmail author


Urine is one of the most extensively analysed biological fluids in clinical and toxicological investigations owing to its high availability and non-invasive collection. The chemical nature of the analytes involved (polarity and thermal instability) makes liquid chromatography the separation technique of choice for compound determination. Moreover, sample treatment based on solid-phase extraction is usually carried out owing to its flexibility and the availability of new sorbent materials with increased selectivity and versatility towards the target compounds. Taking into account these three fundamental points, this review focuses on recent developments in urine pretreatment using highly selective and non-conventional sorbents in solid-phase extraction such as affinity sorbents (immunosorbents and molecularly imprinted polymers), restricted access materials and carbon nanotubes, with emphasis on the new synthesis methods. Their main advantages and shortcomings are presented, together with representative examples in this context.


Highly selective and non-conventional sorbents are excellent tools for the extraction of biomarkers from urine samples. In this article, the role of affinity sorbents (immunosorbents and molecularly imprinted polymers), restricted access material and carbon nanotubes in solid phase extraction procedures is deeply discussed


Urine Liquid chromatography Solid-phase extraction Immunosorbents Molecularly imprinted polymers Restricted access materials Carbon nanotubes 



Financial support from the Spanish DGICyT (grant CTQ2007-60426) and the Junta de Andalucia (grant FQM-02300) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cruz-Vera
    • 1
  • R. Lucena
    • 1
  • S. Cárdenas
    • 1
  • M. Valcárcel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus de RabanalesUniversity of CordobaCordobaSpain

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