Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 1, pp 331–338 | Cite as

Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

  • Raúl A. Sánchez-Moreno
  • M. Jesús Gismera
  • M. Teresa  Sevilla
  • Jesús R. Procopio
Original Paper


A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite–epoxy composite. The optimal graphite–epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 ± 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO3 solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL·min−1, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 × 10−7 M) and online analysis (9.4 × 10−7 M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills.


Schematic diagram of the flow system and potentiometric response peaks to chromium (VI) of the screen-printed sensor


Chromium(VI) Screen-printed electrode Graphite–epoxy composite Diphenylcarbohydrazide Flow-injection potentiometry Potentiometry 



The authors are grateful to the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología for financial support of this work (Plan Nacional I + D + I, no. CTQ2008-06338/BQU) and to the Comunidad Autónoma of Madrid for a research grant for one of the authors (R.A.S.-M.).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raúl A. Sánchez-Moreno
    • 1
  • M. Jesús Gismera
    • 1
  • M. Teresa  Sevilla
    • 1
  • Jesús R. Procopio
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis InstrumentalFacultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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