Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 3, pp 1069–1082 | Cite as

New trends in fast and high-resolution liquid chromatography: a critical comparison of existing approaches

  • Davy Guillarme
  • Josephine Ruta
  • Serge Rudaz
  • Jean-Luc Veuthey
Review

Abstract

Recent developments in chromatographic supports and instrumentation for liquid chromatography (LC) are enabling rapid and highly efficient separations. Various analytical strategies have been proposed, for example the use of silica-based monolithic supports, elevated mobile phase temperatures, and columns packed with sub-3 μm superficially porous particles (fused core) or with sub-2 μm porous particles for use in ultra-high-pressure LC (UHPLC). The purpose of this review is to describe and compare these approaches in terms of throughput and resolving power, using kinetic data gathered for compounds with molecular weights ranging between 200 and 1300 g mol−1 in isocratic and gradient modes. This study demonstrates that the best analytical strategy should be selected on the basis of the analytical problem (e.g., isocratic vs. gradient, throughput vs. efficiency) and the properties of the analyte. UHPLC and fused-core technologies are quite promising for small-molecular-weight compounds, but increasing the mobile phase temperature is useful for larger molecules, for example peptides.

Figure

Recent progress in HPLC technology to increase throughput and resolving power

Keywords

UHPLC UPLC HTLC Monolith Fused-core Kinetic plots 

References

  1. 1.
    Guillarme D, Nguyen DTT, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2007) J Chromatogr A 1149:20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Novakova L, Solichova D, Solich P (2006) J Sep Sci 29:2433–2443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wren SAC, Tchelitcheff P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1119:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Sayah MA, Rizos P, Antonucci V, Wu N (2008) J Sep Sci 31:2167–2172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grata E, Boccard J, Guillarme D, Glauser G, Carrupt PA, Farmer EE, Wolfender JL, Rudaz S (2008) J Chromatogr B 871:261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Petricoin EF, Liotta LA (2004) Trends Mol Med 10:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2009) Spectra Anal 38:12–17Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hjerten S, Liao JL, Zhang R (1989) J Chromatogr 473:273–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Svec F, Frechet JMJ (1992) Anal Chem 64:820–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Minakuchi H, Nakanishi K, Soga N, Ishizuka N, Tanaka N (1996) Anal Chem 68:3498–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Randon J, Huguet S, Piram A, Puy G, Demesmay C, Rocca JL (2006) J Chromatogr A 1109:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liang C, Dai S, Guiochon G (2003) Anal Chem 75:4904–4912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Randon J, Guerrin JF, Rocca JL (2008) J Chromatogr A 1214:183–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Svec F (2004) J Sep Sci 27:1419–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krenkova J, Svec F (2009) J Sep Sci 32:706–718Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakry R, Huck CW, Bonn GK (2009) J Chromatogr Sci 47:418–431Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith NW, Jiang Z (2008) J Chromatogr A 1184:416–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cabrera K (2004) J Sep Sci 27:843–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leinweber FC, Tallarek U (2003) J Chromatogr A 1006:207–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Nederkassel AM, Aerts A, Dierick A, Massart DL, Van Der Heyden Y (2003) J Pharm Biomed Anal 32:233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miyamoto K, Hara T, Kobayashi H, Morisaka H, Tokuda D, Horie K, Koduki K, Makino S, Nunez O, Yang C, Kawabe T, Ikegami T, Takubo H, Ishihama Y, Tanaka N (2008) Anal Chem 80:8741–8750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Majors RE (2008) LC-GC N Am 26:676–691Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brice RW, Zhang X, Colon LA (2009) J Sep Sci 32:2723–2731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heinisch S, Rocca JL (2009) J Chromatogr A 121:6642–6658Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li J, Hu Y, Carr PW (1997) Anal Chem 69:3884–3888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guillarme D, Russo R, Rudaz S, Bicchi C, Veuthey JL (2007) Curr Pharm Anal 4:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guillarme D, Heinisch S, Rocca JL (2004) J Chromatogr A 1052:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lestremau F, De villiers A, Lynen F, Cooper A, Szucs R, Sandra P (2007) J Chromatogr A 1138:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guillarme D, Heinisch S (2005) Sep Purif Rev 34:181–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hartonen K, Riekkola ML (2008) Trends Anal Chem 27:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fields SM, Ye CQ, Zhang DD, Branch BR, Zhang XJ, Okafo N (2001) J Chromatogr A 913:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guillarme D, Heinisch S, Gauvrit JY, Lanteri P, Rocca JL (2005) J Chromatogr A 1078:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Godin JP, Hopfgartner G, Fay L (2008) Anal Chem 80:7144–7152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Schelling C, Dreux M, Veuthey JL (2008) J Chromatogr A 1192:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Godin JP, Hopfgartner G, Fay L (2008) Anal Chem 80:7144–7152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heinisch S, Puy G, Barrioulet MP, Rocca JL (2006) J Chromatogr A 1118:234–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Albert M, Cretier G, Guillarme D, Heinisch S, Rocca JL (2005) J Sep Sci 28:1803–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McNeff CV, Yan B, Stoll DR, Henry RA (2007) J Sep Sci 30:1672–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Teutenberg T, Tuerk J, Holzhauser M, Giegold S (2007) J Sep Sci 30:1101–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thompson JD, Brown JS, Carr PW (2001) Anal Chem 73:3340–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thompson JD, Carr PW (2002) Anal Chem 74:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Knox JH (1977) J Chromatogr Sci 15:352–364Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Majors RE (2005) LC-GC N Am 23:1248–1255Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    MacNair JE, Patel KD, Jorgenson JW (1999) Anal Chem 71:700–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    MacNair JE, Lewis KC, Jorgenson JW (1997) Anal Chem 69:983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nguyen DTT, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2006) J Chromatogr A 1128:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mazzeo JR, Neue UD, Kele M, Plumb RS (2005) Anal Chem 77:460A–467ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cunliffe JM, Adams-Hall SB, Maloney TD (2007) J Sep Sci 30:1214–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Majors RE, Carr PW (2008) LC-GC N Am (Suppl.):19–41Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petersson P, Euerby MR (2007) J Sep Sci 30:2012–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nguyen D, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2006) J Sep Sci 29:1836–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Russo R, Guillarme D, Nguyen D, Bicchi C, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2008) J Chromatogr Sci 46:199–208Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Neue UD, Grumbach ES, Kele M, Mazzeo JR, Sievers D (2006) HPLC Made to measure 498–505Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guillarme D, Nguyen DTT, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2007) Eur J Pharm Biopharm 66:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Guillarme D, Nguyen DTT, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2008) Eur J Pharm Biopharm 68:430–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Plumb RS, Mazzeo JR, Grumbach ES, Rainville P, Jones M, Wheat T, Neue UD, Smith B, Johnson KA (2007) J Sep Sci 30:1158–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    De villiers A, Lestremau F, Szucs R, Gelebart S, David F, Sandra P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1127:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Guillarme D, Meyer V, Veuthey JL (2008) LC-GC Europe 21:322–327Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fountain KJ, Neue UD, Grumbach ES, Diehl DM (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:5979–5988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    de Villiers A, Lauer H, Szucs R, Goodall S, Sandra P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1113:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cabooter D, Lestremau F, de Villiers A, Broeckhoven K, Lynen F, Sandra P, Desmet G (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:3895–3903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Billen J, Broeckhoven K, Liekens A, Choikhet K, Rozing G, Desmet G (2008) J Chromatogr A 1210:30–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gritti F, Guiochon G (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:1353–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kaczmarski K, Gritti F, Kostka J, Guiochon G (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:6575–6586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gritti F, Martin M, Guiochon G (2009) Anal Chem 81:3365–3384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Colon LA, Cintron JM, Anspach JA, Fermier AM, Swinney KA (2004) Analyst 129:503–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Salisbury JJ (2008) J Chromatogr Sci 46:883–886Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cavazzini A, Gritti F, Kaczmarski K, Marchetti N, Guiochon G (2007) Anal Chem 79:5972–5979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Destefano JJ, Langlois TJ, Kirkland JJ (2008) J Chromatogr Sci 46:254–260Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gritti F, Cavazzini A, Marchetti N, Guiochon G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1157:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cunliffe JM, Maloney TD (2007) J Sep Sci 30:3104–3109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fekete S, Fekete J, Ganzler K (2009) J Pharm Biomed Anal 49:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McCalley DV (2008) J Chromatogr A 1193:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marchetti N, Guiochon G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1176:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Marchetti N, Cavazzini A, Gritti F, Guiochon G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1163:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    O’Neal KL, Hamsher AE, Hong L, Li L, Lu D, Wang M, Xu H, Yang Y, Weber SG (2009) Trends Anal Chem 28:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kirkland JJ (1992) Anal Chem 64:1239–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Desmet G, Gzil P, Nguyen D, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL, Vervoort N, Torok G, Cabooter D, Clicq D (2006) Anal Chem 78:2150–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Desmet G, Clicq D, Gzil P (2005) Anal Chem 77:4058–4070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Billen J, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL, Ritchie H, Grady B, Desmet G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1161:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Desmet G, Gzil P, Clicq D (2005) LC-GC Eur 18:403–409Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Desmet G, Cabooter D (2009) LC-GC Eur 22:70–77Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Desmet G (2008) LC-GC Eur 21:310–320Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Eeltink S, Gzil P, Kok WT, Schoenmakers PJ, Gert D (2006) J Chromatogr A 1130:108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Heinisch S, Desmet G, Clicq D, Rocca JL (2008) J Chromatogr A 1203:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cabooter D, de Villiers A, Clicq D, Szucs R, Sandra P, Desmet G (2007) J Chromatogr A 1147:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cabooter D, Billen J, Terryn H, Lynen F, Sandra P, Desmet G (2008) J Chromatogr A 1204:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yang B, Zhao J, Brown JS, Blackwell J, Carr PW (2000) Anal Chem 72:1253–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nguyen D, Guillarme D, Heinisch S, Barrioulet MP, Rocca JL, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL (2007) J Chromatogr A 1167:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guillarme D, Grata E, Glauser G, Wolfender JL, Veuthey JL, Rudaz S (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:3232–3243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Desmet G, Cabooter D, Gzil P, Verelst H, Mangelings D, van der Heyden Y, Clicq D (2006) J Chromatogr A 1130:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    de Villiers A, Lestremau F, Szucs R, Gélébart S, David F, Sandra P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1127:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tanaka N, Kobayashi H, Ishizuka N, Minakuchi H, Nakanishi K, Hosoya K, Ikegami T (2002) J Chromatogr A 965:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bones J, Duffy C, Macka M, Paull B (2008) Analyst 133:180–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lestremau F, Cooper A, Szucs R, David F, Sandra P (2006) J Chromatogr A 1109:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lestremau F, de Villiers A, Lynen F, Cooper A, Szucs R, Sandra P (2007) J Chromatogr A 1138:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Carr PW, Wang X, Stoll DR (2009) Anal Chem 81:5342–5353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tchapla A, Heinisch S (2009) Spectra Anal 38:19–27Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Neue UD (2008) J Chromatogr A 1184:107–130Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ruta J, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL, In preparationGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wang X, Stoll DR, Carr PW, Schoenmakers PJ (2006) J Chromatogr A 1125:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zhang Y, Wang X, Mukherjee P, Petersson P (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:4597–4605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Barrioulet MP, Heinisch S, Rocca JL (2007) Spectra Anal 36:38–44Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    de Villiers A, Lynen F, Sandra P (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:3431–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cabooter D, Lestremau F, Lynen F, Sandra P, Desmet G (2008) J Chromatogr A 1212:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chen H, Cs H (1994) Anal Methods Instrum 1:213–222Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kalghatgi K, Cs H (1988) J Chromatogr 443:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chen H, Horvath C (1995) J Chromatogr A 705:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Petersson P, Frank A, Heaton J, Euerby MR (2008) J Sep Sci 31:2346–2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wren SAC (2005) J Pharm Biomed Anal 38:337–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Grata E, Guillarme D, Glauser G, Boccard J, Carrupt PA, Veuthey JL, Rudaz S, Wolfender JL (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:5660–5668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Plumb RS, Rainville P, Smith BW, Johnson KA, Castro-Perez J, Wilson ID, Nicholson JK (2006) Anal Chem 78:7278–7283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Guiochon G (2006) J Chromatogr A 1126:6–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Francois I, Sandra K, Sandra P (2009) Anal Chim Acta 641:14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dugo P, Cacciola F, Kumm T, Dugo G, Mondello L (2008) J Chromatogr A 1184:353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shalliker RA, Gray MJ (2006) Adv Chromatogr 44:177–236Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davy Guillarme
    • 1
  • Josephine Ruta
    • 1
  • Serge Rudaz
    • 1
  • Jean-Luc Veuthey
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Geneva, University of LausanneGeneva 4Switzerland

Personalised recommendations