Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 3, pp 1311–1320

Development of liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of halogenated flame retardants in wastewater

  • Simon Ningsun Zhou
  • Eric J. Reiner
  • Chris Marvin
  • Paul Helm
  • Nicole Riddell
  • Frank Dorman
  • Michelle Misselwitz
  • Li Shen
  • Patrick Crozier
  • Karen MacPherson
  • Ian D. Brindle
Original Paper

Abstract

Until recently, atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has typically been used for the determination of non-polar halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) by liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) for analysis of 38 HFRs. This developed method offered three advantages: simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity. Compared with APPI, APCI does not require a UV lamp and a dopant reagent to assist atmospheric pressure ionization. All the isomers and the isobaric compounds were well resolved within 14-min LC separation time. Excellent instrument detection limits (6.1 pg on average with 2.0 μL injection) were observed. The APCI mechanism was also investigated. The method developed has been applied to the screening of wastewater samples for screening purpose, with concentrations determined by LC-APCI-MS/MS agreeing with data obtained via gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry.

Figure

LC-APCI-MS/MS for analysis of halogenated flame reterdants

Keywords

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) Wastewater 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Ningsun Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric J. Reiner
    • 2
  • Chris Marvin
    • 3
  • Paul Helm
    • 4
  • Nicole Riddell
    • 5
  • Frank Dorman
    • 6
    • 7
  • Michelle Misselwitz
    • 6
  • Li Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Patrick Crozier
    • 2
  • Karen MacPherson
    • 2
  • Ian D. Brindle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada
  2. 2.Ontario Ministry of the EnvironmentLaboratory Services BranchTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Environment CanadaNational Water Research InstituteBurlingtonCanada
  4. 4.Ontario Ministry of the EnvironmentEnvironmental Monitoring and Reporting BranchTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Wellington LaboratoriesGuelphCanada
  6. 6.Restek CorporationBellefonteUSA
  7. 7.Juniata College Department of ChemistryHuntingdonUSA

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