The aim of this work was to develop procedures for the simultaneous determination of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in river water and in river bed sediment. The target analytes were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). To determine dissolved BFRs, a novel mixed-mode solid-phase extraction procedure was developed by combining a hydrophobic sorbent (C18) with a silica-based anion exchange sorbent, so as to overcome the negative artefact induced by dissolved organic carbon. Extraction recoveries exceeded 73% for most analytes, except for BDE-183 and BDE-209 (57%). As regards suspended sediment and river bed sediment, extraction was carried out by means of ultrasonication (recoveries: 73–94%). These procedures, combined to gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), enabled the determination of BFRs at trace level: 3-160 pg L−1 in river water, 5–145 pg g−1 in bed sediment. These methods were applied to the determination of PBDEs and TBBPA in a suburban river (near Paris, France). PBDEs were systematically detected in the water column (ΣBDEs, 2,300–4,300 pg L−1); they partitioned between the dissolved and particulate phases and BDE-209 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. TBBPA was detected in the dissolved phase only (<35–68 pg L−1). All selected BFRs were ubiquitous in bed sediments and levels ranged from 3,100 to 15,100 pg g−1 and from 70 to 280 pg g−1 (dry weight), for ΣBDEs and TBBPA, respectively.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Tetrabromobisphenol A Solid-phase extraction River water Sediment
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This work was funded by the Piren Seine programme (http://www.sisyphe.upmc.fr/internet/piren). The authors also wish to acknowledge the Ile-de-France Regional Council for providing PhD funding for K. Tlili (R2DS grant). We are grateful to Ms J. Martin and Dr J. Garnier (UMR 7619 Sisyphe, Paris) who carried out DOC determination. Reference sediment BROC-02 was kindly provided by Dr M. Lohman and P. Korytar (Wageningen UR, The Netherlands).
Decision No 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20, November 2001, establishing the list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, L 331/2Google Scholar