Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 6, pp 1991–2002 | Cite as

New approaches in GMO detection

  • Maddalena QuerciEmail author
  • Marc Van den Bulcke
  • Jana Žel
  • Guy Van den Eede
  • Hermann Broll


The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches.


Genetically modified organism Genetically modified organism detection Detection strategies High-throughput systems Matrix approach Decision support systems 



The authors would like to thank Kristina Gruden and Dany Morisset from the National Institute of Biology for their valuable inputs to the manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Holst-Jensen A, De Loose M, Van Den Eede G (2006) J Agric Food Chem 54:2799–2809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    James C (2008) ISAAA brief no 39. ISAAA, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stein AJ, Rodríguez-Cerezo E (2009) JRC technical report EUR 23486 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carter CA, Gruère GP (2006) In: Just R, Alston JM, Zilberman D (eds) Regulating agricultural biotechnology. Economics and policies. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    European Commission (2001) Off J Eur Communities L 106:1–38Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    European Commission (2003) Off J Eur Union L 268:1–23Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    European Commission (2003) Off J Eur Union L 268:24–28Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramessar K, Capell T, Twyman RM, Quemada H, Christou P (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26:975–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Querci M, Paoletti C, Van den Eede G (2007) In: Craig W (ed) Collection of biosafety reviews. International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, TriesteGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miraglia M, Berdal KG, Brera C, Corbisier P, Holst-Jensen A, Kok E, Marvin HJP, Schimmel H, Rentsch J, van Rie JP, Zagon J (2004) Food Chem Toxicol 42:1157–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holst-Jensen A (2007) In: Pico Y (ed) Food toxicants analysis. Techniques, strategies and developments. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodríguez-Lázaro D, Lombard B, Smith H, Rzezutka A, D’Agostino M, Helmuth R, Schroeter A, Malorny B, Miko A, Guerra B, Davison J, Kobilinsky A, Hernández M, Bertheau Y, Cook N (2007) Trends Food Sci Technol 18:306–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holst-Jensen A, Berdal KG (2004) J AOAC Int 87:927–936Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    BATS (2003) Genetically modified (GM) crops: molecular and regulatory details. version 2. BATS Centre for Biosafety and Sustainability. Accessed July 2009
  15. 15.
    Fernandez S, Charles-Delobel C, Geldreich A, Berthier G, Boyer F, Collonnier C, Coué-Philippe G, Diolez A, Duplan M, Kebdani N, Romaniuk M, Feinberg M, Bertheau Y (2005) J AOAC Int 88(2):547–557Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morisset D, Demšar T, Gruden K, Vojvoda J, Štebih D, Žel J (2009) Nat Biotechnol 27:700–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong W, Yang L, Shen K, Kim B, Kleter GA, Marvin HJP, Guo R, Liang W, Zhang D (2008) BMC Bioinformatics 9:260. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elenis DS, Kalogianni DP, Glynou K, Ioannou PC, Christopoulos TK (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 392:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marmiroli N, Maestri E, Gullì M, Malcevschi A, Peano C, Bordoni R, De Bellis G (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 392:369–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michelini E, Simoni P, Cevenini L, Mezzanotte L, Roda A (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 392:355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holst-Jensen A, Rønning SB, Løvseth A, Berdal KG (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 375:985–993Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Van den Bulcke M, Lievens A, Barbeau-Piednoir E, Mbongolo Mbella G, Roosens N, Sneyers M, Casi AL (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem (in press)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kralj Novak P, Gruden K, Morisset K, Lavrač N, Štebih D, Rotter A, Žel J (2009) J AOAC Int (in press)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu J, Miao H, Wu H, Huang W, Tang R, Qiu M, Wen J, Zhu S, Li Y (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 22:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Waiblinger H-U, Boernsen B, Pietsch K (2008) Dtsch Lebensm Rundsch 104(6):261–264Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waiblinger HU, Ernst B, Anderson A, Pietsch K (2007) Eur Food Res Technol 226:1221–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Länderausschusses Gentechnik (2006) Real-Time PCR zur quantitativen Bestimmung gentechnisch veränderter Rapslinien mit dem 35S/pat-Genkonstrukt.
  28. 28.
    Grohmann L, Brünen-Nieweler C, Nemeth A, Waiblinger HU (2009) J Agric Food Chem 57(19):8913–8920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reiting R, Broll H, Waiblinger HU, Grohmann L (2007) J Verbr Lebensm 2:116–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamels S, Glouden T, Gillard K, Mazzara M, Debode F, Foti N, Sneyers M (2009) Esteve Nuez T, Pla M, Berben G, Moens W, Bertheau Y, Audéon C, Van den Eede G, Remacle J. Eur Food Res Technol 228:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    International Organization for Standardization (1994) International Standard (ISO) 5725. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Querci M, Foti N, Bogni A, Kluga L, Broll H, Van den Eede G (2009) Food. Anal Methods. doi: 10.1007/s12161-009-9093-0 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mano J, Shigemitsu N, Futo S, Akiyama H, Teshima R, Hino A, Furui S, Kitta K (2009) J Agric Food Chem 57:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Permingeat HR, Reggiardo MI, Vallejos RH (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:4431–4436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Germini A, Zanetti A, Salati C, Rossi S, Forre C, Schmid S, Marchelli R, Fogher C (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:3275–3280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hernández M, Rodríguez-Lázaro D, Zhang D, Esteve T, Pla M, Prat S (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53:3333–3337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Germini A, Rossi S, Zanetti A, Corradini R, Fogher C, Marchelli R (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53:3958–3962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bordoni R, Germini A, Mezzelani A, Marchelli R, De Bellis G (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53:912–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leimanis S, Hernández M, Fernández S, Boyer F, Burns M, Bruderer S, Glouden T, Harris N, Kaeppeli O, Philipp P, Pla M, Puigdomènech P, Vaitilingom M, Bertheau Y, Remacle J (2006) Plant Mol Biol 61:123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Leimanis S, Hamels S, Nazé F, Mbongolo Mbella G, Sneyers M, Hochegger R, Broll H, Roth L, Dallmann K, Micsinai A, La Paz JL, Pla M, Brünen-Nieweler C, Papazova N, Taverniers I, Hess N, Kirschneit B, Bertheau Y, Audeon C, Laval V, Busch U, Pecoraro S, Neumann K, Rösel S, van Dijk J, Kok E, Bellocchi G, Foti N, Mazzara M, Moens W, Remacle J, Van den Eede G (2008) Eur Food Res Technol 227:1621–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Prins TW, van Dijk JP, Beenen HG, Van Hoef AMA, Voorhuijzen MM, Schoen CD, Aarts HJM, Kok EJ (2008) BMC Genomics 9:584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morisset D, Stebih D, Cankar K, Žel J, Gruden K (2008) Eur Food Res Technol 227:1287–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morisset D, Dobnik D, Hamels S, Žel J, Gruden K (2008) Nucleic Acids Res 36(18):e118. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dobnik D, Morisset D, Gruden K (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem (in press)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fantozzi A, Ermolli M, Marini M, Balla B, Querci M, Van den Eede G (2008) Food Anal Methods 1:10–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nadal A, Coll A, La Paz JL, Esteve T, Pla M (2006) Electrophoresis 27:3879–3888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nadal A, Esteve T, Pla M (2009) J AOAC Int 92(3):765–777Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bellocchi G, Acutis M, Paoletti C, Confalonieri R, Trevisiol P, Grazioli E (2008) Charles Delobel C, Savini C, Mazzara M, Van den Eede G. Food Anal Methods 1:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maddalena Querci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc Van den Bulcke
    • 4
  • Jana Žel
    • 2
  • Guy Van den Eede
    • 1
  • Hermann Broll
    • 3
  1. 1.Molecular Biology and Genomics Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP)European Commission—Joint Research Centre (JRC)IspraItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology and Systems BiologyNational Institute of Biology (NIB)LjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Food Safety DepartmentFederal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR)BerlinGermany
  4. 4.Scientific Institute of Public Health (IPH)BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations