Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 1, pp 45–52

Development of tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy for biological applications: a review

  • Alistair P. D. Elfick
  • Andrew R. Downes
  • Rabah Mouras


Tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy is an approach that holds a good deal of promise for the nanoscale characterisation of matter. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) has been demonstrated on a variety of samples: inorganic, organic and biological. Imaging using TERS has been shown for carbon nanotubes due to their high scattering efficiency. There are a number of compelling motivations to consider alternative approaches for biological samples; most importantly, the potential for heat damage of biomolecules and long acquisition times. These issues may be addressed through the development of tip-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.


TERS Raman Near-field Biological samples tip-enhanced CARS 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alistair P. D. Elfick
    • 1
  • Andrew R. Downes
    • 1
  • Rabah Mouras
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical Engineering, The School of EngineeringThe University of EdinburghEdinburghUK

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