Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 1, pp 229–240 | Cite as

Bioconjugated quantum dots as fluorescent probes for bioanalytical applications

  • Manuela F. Frasco
  • Nikos Chaniotakis
Review

Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have unique optoelectronic properties responsible for bringing together multidisciplinary research to impel their potential bioanalytical applications. In recent years, the many remarkable optical properties of QDs have been combined with the ability to make them increasingly biocompatible and specific to the target. With this great development, QDs hold particular promise as the next generation of fluorescent probes. This review describes the developments in functionalizing QDs making use of different bioconjugation and capping approaches. The progress offered by QDs is evidenced by examples on QD-based biosensing, biolabeling, and delivery of therapeutic agents. In the near future, QD technology still faces some challenges towards the envisioned broad bioanalytical purposes.

Figure

Bioanalytical applications of luminescent quantum dot-bioconjugates

Keywords

Quantum dots Bioconjugation Fluorescence Biosensing Biolabeling and imaging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (M.F.F., postdoctoral grant SFRH/BPD/40876/2007), and by the European Commission program NANOMYC (contract 036812) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    MJr B, Moronne M, Gin P, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP (1998) Science 281:2013–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Michalet X, Pinaud FF, Bentolila LA, Tsay JM, Doose S, Li JJ, Sundaresan G, Wu AM, Gambhir SS, Weiss S (2005) Science 307:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dabbousi BO, Rodriguez-Viejo J, Mikulec FV, Heine JR, Mattoussi H, Ober R, Jensen KF, Bawendi MG (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:9463–9475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang X, Ruedas-Rama MJ, Hall EAH (2007) Anal Lett 40:1497–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen Y, Rosenzweig Z (2002) Anal Chem 74:5132–5138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jin T, Fujii F, Sakata H, Tamura M, Kinjo M (2005) Chem Commun 4300–4302Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han C, Li H (2008) Small 4:1344–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Willard DM, Carillo LL, Jung J, Van Orden A (2001) Nano Lett 1:469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pons T, Medintz IL, Wang X, English DS, Mattoussi (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:15324–15331Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Algar WR, Krull UJ (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1609–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Medintz IL, Mattoussi H (2009) Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:17–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim S, Lim YT, Soltesz EG, De Grand AM, Lee J, Nakayama A, Parker JA, Mihaljevic T, Laurence RG, Dor DM, Cohn LH, Bawendi MG, Frangioni JV (2004) Nat Biotechnol 22:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weissleder R (2001) Nat Biotechnol 19:316–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    So M-K, Xu C, Loening AM, Gambhir SS, Rao J (2006) Nat Biotechnol 24:339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang X, Li L, Qian H, Dong C, Ren J (2006) Angew Chem Int Ed 45:5140–5143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chan WCW, Nie S (1998) Science 281:2016–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mahtab R, Harden HH, Murphy CJ (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:14–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pinaud F, King D, Moore HP, Weiss S (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:6115–6123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Algar WR, Krull UJ (2007) Chemphyschem 8:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mattoussi H, Mauro JM, Goldman ER, Green TM, Anderson GP, Sundar VC, Bawendi MG (2001) Phys Status Solidi B 224:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goldman ER, Medintz IL, Hayhurst A, Anderson GP, Mauro JM, Iverson BL, Georgiou G, Mattoussi H (2005) Anal Chim Acta 534:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Idowu M, Lamprecht E, Nyokong T (2008) J Photochem Photobiol A 198:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang C-P, Liu H-W, Tsao C-Y, Yin L-T, Chiu S-F, Chen T-M (2005) Sens Actuators B 108:713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gerion D, Pinaud F, Williams SC, Parak WJ, Zanchet D, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:8861–8871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parak WJ, Gerion D, Zanchet D, Woerz AS, Pellegrino T, Micheel C, Williams SC, Seitz M, Bruehl RE, Bryant Z, Bustamante C, Bertozzi CR, Alivisatos AP (2002) Chem Mater 14:2113–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolcott A, Gerion D, Visconte M, Sun J, Schwartzberg A, Chen S, Zhang JZ (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:5779–5789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jin L, Yu D-D, Liu Y, Zhao X-L, Zhou J-G (2008) Talanta 76:1053–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Han M, Gao X, Su JZ, Nie S (2001) Nat Biotechnol 19:631–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang H-Q, Wang J-H, Li Y-Q, Li X-Q, Liu T-C, Huang Z-L, Zhao Y-D (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 316:622–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pellegrino T, Manna L, Kudera S, Liedl T, Koktysh D, Rogach AL, Keller S, Rädler J, Natile G, Parak WJ (2004) Nano Lett 4:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen Y, Thakar R, Snee PT (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:3744–3745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nie Q, Tan WB, Zhang Y (2006) Nanotechnology 17:140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duan H, Nie S (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:3333–3338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li H, Wang X (2008) Sens Actuators B 134:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hu L, Mao Z, Gao C (2009) Colloid Surf A 336:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fernández-Argüelles MT, Yakovlev A, Sperling RA, Luccardini C, Gaillard S, Sanz Medel A, Mallet J-M, Brochon J-C, Feltz A, Oheim M, Parak WJ (2007) Nano Lett 7:2613–2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang C-Y, Yeh H-C, Kuroki MT, Wang T-H (2005) Nat Mater 4:826–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang C-Y, Johnson LW (2006) Analyst 131:484–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ebenstein Y, Gassman N, Kim S, Antelman J, Kim Y, Ho S, Samuel R, Michalet X, Weiss S (2009) Nano Lett 9:1598–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bae PK, Kim KN, Lee SJ, Chang HJ, Lee CK, Park JK (2009) Biomaterials 30:836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Boeneman K, Mei BC, Dennis AM, Bao G, Deschamps JR, Mattoussi H, Medintz IL (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:3828–3829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dwarakanath S, Bruno JG, Shastry A, Phillips T, John A, Kumar A, Stephenson LD (2004) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ikanovic M, Rudzinski WE, Bruno JG, Allman A, Carrillo MP, Dwarakanath S, Bhahdigadi S, Rao P, Kiel JL, Andrews CJ (2007) J Fluoresc 17:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xue X, Pan J, Xie H, Wang J, Zhang S (2009) Talanta 77:1808–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Edgar R, McKinstry M, Hwang J, Oppenheim AB, Fekete RA, Giulin G, Merril C, Nagashima K, Adhya S (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:4841–4845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang C-Y, Johnson LW (2009) Anal Chem 81:3051–3055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Algar WR, Krull UJ (2008) Langmuir 24:5514–5520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Algar WR, Krull UJ (2009) Langmuir 25:633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Algar WR, Krull UJ (2009) Anal Chem 81:4113–4120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Medintz IL, Sapsford KE, Konnert JH, Chatterji A, Lin T, Johnson JE, Mattoussi H (2005) Langmuir 21:5501–5510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lin CI, Joseph AK, Chang CK, Lee YD (2004) J Chromatogr A 1027:259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Diltemiz SE, Say R, Büyüktiryaki S, Hür D, Denizli A, Ersöz A (2008) Talanta 75:890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cissel KA, Campbell S, Deo SK (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 391:2577–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yao H, Zhang Y, Xiao F, Xia Z, Rao J (2007) Angew Chem 119:4424–4427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Xing Y, So M-K, Koh AL, Sinclair R, Rao J (2008) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 372:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rosenthal SJ, Tomlinson I, Adkins EM, Schroeter S, Adams S, Swafford L, McBride J, Wang Y, DeFelice LJ, Blakely RD (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:4586–4594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Young SH, Rozengurt E (2006) Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290:C728–C732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tomlinson ID, Gussin HA, Little DM, Warnement MR, Qian H, Pepperberg DR, Rosenthal SJ (2007) J Biomed Biotechnol 76514Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dahan M, Lévi S, Luccardini C, Rostaing P, Riveau B, Triller A (2003) Science 302:442–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Winter JO, Liu TY, Korgel BA, Schmidt CE (2001) Adv Mater 13:1673–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chattopadhyay PK, Price DA, Harper TF, Betts MR, Yu J, Gostick E, Perfetto SP, Goepfert P, Koup RA, De Rosa SC, Bruchez MP, Roederer M (2006) Nat Med 12:972–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Howarth M, Takao K, Hayashi Y, Ting AY (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7583–7588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bonasio R, Carman CV, Kim E, Sage PT, Love KR, Mempel TR, Springer TA, von Andrian UH (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:14753–14758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sunbul M, Yen M, Zou Y, Yin J (2008) Chem Commun 5927–5929Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Murcia MJ, Minner DE, Mustata G-M, Ritchie K, Naumann CA (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:15054–15062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pinaud F, Michalet X, Iyer G, Margeat E, Moore H-P, Weiss S (2009) Traffic 10:691–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Åkerman ME, Chan WCW, Laakkonen P, Bhatia SN, Ruoslahti E (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12617–12621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wu X, Liu H, Liu J, Haley KN, Treadway JA, Larson JP, Ge N, Peale F, Bruchez MP (2003) Nat Biotechnol 21:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jaiswal JK, Mattoussi H, Mauro JM, Simon SM (2003) Nat Biotechnol 21:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pellegrino T, Parak WJ, Boudreau R, Le Gros MA, Gerion D, Alivisatos AP, Larabell CA (2003) Differentiation 71:542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lidke DS, Nagy P, Heintzmann R, Arndt-Jovin DJ, Post JN, Grecco HE, Jares-Erijman EA, Jovin TM (2004) Nat Biotechnol 22:198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shi L, De Paoli V, Rosenzweig N, Rosenzweig Z (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:10378–10379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shi L, Rosenzweig N, Rosenzweig Z (2007) Anal Chem 79:208–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Khatchadourian R, Bachir A, Clarke SJ, Heyes CD, Wiseman PW, Nadeau JL (2007) J Biomed Biotechnol 70145Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Freeman R, Gill R, Shweky I, Kotler M, Banin U, Willner I (2009) Angew Chem Int Ed 48:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Delehanty JB, Mattoussi H, Medintz IL (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1091–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hess GT, Humphries WH IV, Fay NC, Payne CK (2007) Biochim Biophys Acta 1773:1583–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Delehanty JB, Medintz IL, Pons T, Brunel FM, Dawson PE, Mattoussi H (2006) Bioconjug Chem 17:920–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Medintz IL, Pons T, Delehanty JB, Susumu K, Brunel FM, Dawson PE, Mattoussi H (2008) Bioconjug Chem 19:1785–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bagalkot V, Zhang L, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Jon S, Kantoff PW, Langer R, Farokhzad OC (2007) Nano Lett 7:3065–3070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chen AA, Derfus AM, Khetani SR, Bhatia SN (2005) Nucleic Acids Res 33:e190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tan WB, Jiang S, Zhang Y (2007) Biomaterials 28:1565–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Derfus AM, Chen AA, Min D-H, Ruoslahti E, Bhatia SN (2007) Bioconjug Chem 18:1391–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rzigalinski BA, Strobl JS (2009) Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:280–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Derfus AM, Chan WCW, Bhatia SN (2004) Nano Lett 4:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hoshino A, Fujioka K, Oku T, Suga M, Sasaki YF, Ohta T, Yasuhara M, Suzuki K, Yamamoto K (2004) Nano Lett 4:2163–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kirchner C, Liedl T, Kudera S, Pellegrino T, Javier AM, Gaub AHE, Stizle S, Fertig N, Parak WJ (2005) Nano Lett 5:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ipe BI, Lehnig M, Niemeyer CM (2005) Small 1:706–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ballou B, Lagerholm BC, Ernst LA, Bruchez MP, Waggoner AS (2004) Bioconjug Chem 15:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fischer HC, Liu L, Pang KS, Chan WCW (2006) Adv Funct Mater 16:1299–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Choi HS, Liu W, Misra P, Tanaka E, Zimmer JP, Ipe BI, Bawendi MG, Frangioni JV (2007) Nat Biotechnol 25:1165–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryUniversity of CreteIraklionGreece

Personalised recommendations