Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 395, Issue 1, pp 225–234 | Cite as

Using the solvation parameter model to characterize functionalized ionic liquids containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) anion

  • Qichao Zhao
  • Jens Eichhorn
  • William R. Pitner
  • Jared L. AndersonEmail author
Original Paper


Ionic liquids (ILs) containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate anion [FAP] have attracted increased attention due to their unique properties including ultrahigh hydrophobicity, hydrolytic stability, and wide electrochemical window. In this study, the solvation parameter model is used via gas chromatography to characterize the solvation interactions of seven ILs containing amino, ester, and hydroxyl functional groups appended to the cation and paired with [FAP], as well as three ILs containing the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion [NTf2]. The role of the functional groups, nature of the counter anion, and cation type on the system constants were evaluated. ILs containing [FAP] possessed lower hydrogen bond basicity than NTf2-based ILs having the same cationic component; in the case of hydroxyl-functionalized cations, the presence of [FAP] led to an enhancement of the hydrogen bond acidity, relative to the NTf2-analogs. The system constants support the argument that [FAP] weakly coordinates the cation and any appended functional groups, promoting properties of the cation which might be masked by stronger interactions with other anion systems. The chromatographic performance of the IL stationary phases was evaluated by examining the retention behavior and separation selectivity for chosen analytes. The results from this work can be used as a guide for choosing FAP-based ILs capable of exhibiting desired solvation properties while retaining important physical properties including high thermal stability and high hydrophobicity.


In this study, the solvation parameter model is used via gas chromatography to characterize the solvation interactions of seven ILs containing amino, ester, and hydroxyl functional groups appended to the cation and paired with tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [FAP], as well as three ILs containing the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion [NTf2].


Ionic liquid Functionalized ionic liquid Gas chromatography Stationary phase Selectivity Tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate FAP Solvation 



J.L.A. acknowledges funding from the Analytical and Surface Chemistry Program in the Division of Chemistry and the Separation and Purification Processes Program in the Chemical, Environmental, Bioengineering, and Transport Systems Division from the National Science Foundation for a CAREER grant (CHE-0748612).

Supplementary material

216_2009_2951_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (687 kb)
Electronic supplementary material 1H-NMR and ESI–MS spectra of the ILs evaluated in this study are presented. The list of the 42 solutes and their corresponding solute descriptors used to characterize the IL stationary phases in this study are given in Table S-1. (PDF 687 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qichao Zhao
    • 1
  • Jens Eichhorn
    • 2
  • William R. Pitner
    • 2
  • Jared L. Anderson
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of ToledoToledoUSA
  2. 2.Merck KGaADarmstadtGermany

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