Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 394, Issue 8, pp 2095–2103 | Cite as

Automated extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cellulosic fibers for forensic analysis by capillary electrophoresis

  • C. R. Dockery
  • A. R. Stefan
  • A. A. Nieuwland
  • S. N. Roberson
  • B. M. Baguley
  • J. E. Hendrix
  • S. L. Morgan
Original Paper


Systematic designed experiments were employed to find the optimum conditions for extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cotton fibers prior to forensic characterization. Automated microextractions were coupled with measurements of extraction efficiencies on a microplate reader UV–visible spectrophotometer to enable rapid screening of extraction efficiency as a function of solvent composition. Solvent extraction conditions were also developed to be compatible with subsequent forensic characterization of extracted dyes by capillary electrophoresis with UV–visible diode array detection. The capillary electrophoresis electrolyte successfully used in this work consists of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 40:60 acetonitrile–water at pH 9.3, with the addition of sodium dithionite reducing agent to facilitate analysis of vat dyes. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is enhanced discrimination of trace fiber evidence by analysis of extracted dyes.


Fitted absorbance response surface for extraction of a direct dye, C. I. yellow 58, using a ternary solvent system.


Forensic analysis Cotton fibers Extraction of direct, reactive and vat dyes Capillary electrophoresis 



This research was supported under a contract award from the Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Laboratory Division. Points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.


  1. 1.
    Palenik S (1999) In: Robertson J, Grieve M (eds) Forensic examination of fibres, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 364–378Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stoeffler SF (1996) J Forensic Sci 41:297–299Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rendle DF, Wiggins KG (1995) Forensic analysis of textile fibre dyes. Rev Prog Color Relat Top 25:29–34Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shore J (2002) Colorants and auxiliaries, vol. 1, 2nd edn. Society of Dyers and Colourists, West Yorkshire, England, pp 18–23Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laing DK, Dudley RJ, Hartshorne AW, Home JM, Rickard RA, Bennett DC (1991) Forensic Sci Int 50:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng J, Wanogho S, Watson ND, Caddy B (1991) J Forensic Sci 31:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Home JM, Dudley RJ (1981) Forensic Sci Int 17:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sirén H, Sulkava R (1995) J Chromatogr A 717:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu X, Leijenhorst H, Van den Hoven P, De Koeijer JA, Logtenberg H (2001) Sci Justice 41:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith W (2005) Experimental design for formulation. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deming SN, Morgan SL (1993) Experimental design: a chemometric approach, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deming SN, Morgan SL (1979) Clin Chem 25:840–855Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vogh JW (1971) Anal Chem 43:1618–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poiger T, Richardson SD, Baughman GL (2000) J Chromatogr A 886:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nalankilli G (1997) Colourage 44:33–39Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheth GN (1990) Spectrochim Acta A 47:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tetler LW, Cooper PA, Carr CM (2005) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 8:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Dockery
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. R. Stefan
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. A. Nieuwland
    • 1
    • 4
  • S. N. Roberson
    • 1
  • B. M. Baguley
    • 1
    • 5
  • J. E. Hendrix
    • 1
  • S. L. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryKennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA
  3. 3.Polymathic Analytical LabsOrangeburgUSA
  4. 4.ColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.Washoe Co. Sheriff Forensic Science DivisionRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations