Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 394, Issue 8, pp 2095–2103 | Cite as

Automated extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cellulosic fibers for forensic analysis by capillary electrophoresis

  • C. R. Dockery
  • A. R. Stefan
  • A. A. Nieuwland
  • S. N. Roberson
  • B. M. Baguley
  • J. E. Hendrix
  • S. L. Morgan
Original Paper

Abstract

Systematic designed experiments were employed to find the optimum conditions for extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cotton fibers prior to forensic characterization. Automated microextractions were coupled with measurements of extraction efficiencies on a microplate reader UV–visible spectrophotometer to enable rapid screening of extraction efficiency as a function of solvent composition. Solvent extraction conditions were also developed to be compatible with subsequent forensic characterization of extracted dyes by capillary electrophoresis with UV–visible diode array detection. The capillary electrophoresis electrolyte successfully used in this work consists of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 40:60 acetonitrile–water at pH 9.3, with the addition of sodium dithionite reducing agent to facilitate analysis of vat dyes. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is enhanced discrimination of trace fiber evidence by analysis of extracted dyes.

Figure

Fitted absorbance response surface for extraction of a direct dye, C. I. yellow 58, using a ternary solvent system.

Keywords

Forensic analysis Cotton fibers Extraction of direct, reactive and vat dyes Capillary electrophoresis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported under a contract award from the Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Laboratory Division. Points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Dockery
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. R. Stefan
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. A. Nieuwland
    • 1
    • 4
  • S. N. Roberson
    • 1
  • B. M. Baguley
    • 1
    • 5
  • J. E. Hendrix
    • 1
  • S. L. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryKennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA
  3. 3.Polymathic Analytical LabsOrangeburgUSA
  4. 4.ColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.Washoe Co. Sheriff Forensic Science DivisionRenoUSA

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