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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 1, pp 379–399 | Cite as

Biological matrices for the evaluation of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during prenatal life and childhood

  • Heura Llaquet
  • Simona Pichini
  • Xavier Joya
  • Esther Papaseit
  • Oriol Vall
  • Julia Klein
  • Oscar Garcia-AlgarEmail author
Review

Abstract

The measurement of nicotine and its major metabolites cotinine and trans-3´-hydroxicotinine together with other minor metabolites (e.g., cotinine N-oxide, cotinine, and trans-3´-hydroxicotinine glucuronides) in conventional and nonconventional biological matrices has been used as a biomarker to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood. The determination of these substances in matrices such as amniotic fluid, meconium, and fetal hair accounts for prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking at different stages of pregnancy. Nicotine and its metabolites in cord blood, neonatal urine, and breast milk are useful for determining acute exposure to drugs of abuse in the period immediately before and after delivery. Cotinine measurement in children’s blood and urine and nicotine and cotinine measurements in children’s hair constitute objective indexes of acute and chronic exposure during infancy, respectively. However, for monitoring and categorizing cumulative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during the entire childhood, including the prenatal period, the assessment of nicotine in teeth has been proposed as a promising noninvasive tool. This article reviews the usefulness of measurement of nicotine and its metabolites in different fetal and pediatric biological matrices in light of noninvasive collection, time window of exposure detection, and finally clinical application in pediatrics.

Keywords

Biological matrices Environmental tobacco smoke Prenatal Childhood 

Abbreviations

APCI

atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

ETS

environmental tobacco smoke

GC

gas chromatography

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

LC

liquid chromatography

MS

mass spectrometry

MS/MS

tandem mass spectrometry

NPD

nitrogen—phosphorus detection

PPHN

persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

RIA

radioimmunoassay

SPE

solid-phase extraction

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heura Llaquet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Simona Pichini
    • 3
  • Xavier Joya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Esther Papaseit
    • 1
    • 2
  • Oriol Vall
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julia Klein
    • 4
  • Oscar Garcia-Algar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Unitat de Recerca Infancia i Entorn, IMIM-Hospital del MarBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de PediatriaUniversitat Autònoma BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines EvaluationIstituto Superiore di SanitàRomeItaly
  4. 4.Drug Testing ConsultantsTorontoCanada

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