Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 395, Issue 3, pp 621–636 | Cite as

Emerging optofluidic technologies for point-of-care genetic analysis systems: a review

  • Desmond BrennanEmail author
  • John Justice
  • Brian Corbett
  • Tommie McCarthy
  • Paul Galvin
Review

Abstract

This review describes recently emerging optical and microfluidic technologies suitable for point-of-care genetic analysis systems. Such systems must rapidly detect hundreds of mutations from biological samples with low DNA concentration. We review optical technologies delivering multiplex sensitivity and compatible with lab-on-chip integration for both tagged and non-tagged optical detection, identifying significant source and detector technology emerging from telecommunications technology. We highlight the potential for improved hybridization efficiency through careful microfluidic design and outline some novel enhancement approaches using target molecule confinement. Optimization of fluidic parameters such as flow rate, channel height and time facilitates enhanced hybridization efficiency and consequently detection performance as compared with conventional assay formats (e.g. microwell plates). We highlight lab-on-chip implementations with integrated microfluidic control for “sample-to-answer” systems where molecular biology protocols to realize detection of target DNA sequences from whole blood are required. We also review relevant technology approaches to optofluidic integration, and highlight the issue of biomolecule compatibility. Key areas in the development of an integrated optofluidic system for DNA hybridization are optical/fluidic integration and the impact on biomolecules immobilized within the system. A wide range of technology platforms have been advanced for detection, quantification and other forms of characterization of a range of biomolecules (e.g. RNA, DNA, protein and whole cell). Owing to the very different requirements for sample preparation, manipulation and detection of the different types of biomolecules, this review is focused primarily on DNA–DNA interactions in the context of point-of-care analysis systems.

Keywords

Microfluidics Optical detection DNA Surface chemistry 

References

  1. 1.
    Dobson MG, Galvin P, Barton DE (2007) Expert Rev Mol Diagn 7(4):359–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nanosphere Inc. (2009) Gold Particle Technology Overview. http://www.nanosphere-inc.com. Accessed 12 March 2009
  3. 3.
    Hahn S, Mergenthaler S, Zimmermann B, Holzgreve W (2005) Bioelectrochemistry 67(2):151–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Von Lode P (2005) Clin Biochem 38(7):591–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Park T, Lee S, Seong GH, Choo J, Lee EK, Kim YS, Ji WJ, Hwang SY, Gweon D, Lee S (2005) Lab Chip 5:437–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ronaghi M, Karamohamed S, Pettersson B, Uhlen M, Nyren P (1996) Anal Biochem 242:84–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Russom A, Tooke N, Andersson H, Stemme G (2003) J Chromatogr A 1014:37–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marasso SL, Carnavese G, Cocuzza M, Ferranini M, Guiri E, Bartolo SL, Mantero G, Perrone D, Quaglio M, Vallini I (2008) Microelectron Eng 85:1326–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spurgeon SL, Jones RC, Ramakrishnan R (2008) PLoS ONE 3(2):1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang Y, Vaidya B, Farquar HD (2003) Anal Chem 75(5):1130–1140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang J, Chen Z, Corstjens P, Mauk MG, Bau HH (2006) Lab Chip 6:46–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berney H, Oliver K (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21(4):618–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lillis B, Manning M, Berney H, Hurley E, Mathewson A, Sheehan MM (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21(8):1459–1467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao Z, Peytavi R,Diaz-Quijada GA, Picard FJ, Huletsky A, Leblanc E, Frenette J, Boivin G, Veres T, Dumoulin MM, Bergeron MG (2008) J Clin Microbiol 46(11):3752–3758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang C, Xing D (2007) Nucleic Acids Res 35(13):4223–4237CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Waters LC, Jacobson SC, Kroutchinina N, Khandurina J, Foote FR, Ramsey JM (1998) Anal Chem 70:158–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li P, Harrison J (1997) Anal Chem 69:1564–1568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Belgrader P, Hansford D, Kovacs G, Venkateswaran K, Mariella R, Milanovich F, Nasarabadi S, Okuzumi M, Porahmadi F, Northrup A (1999) Anal Chem 71:4232–4236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taylor M, Belgrader P, Furman B, Pourahmadi F, Kovacs G, Northrup A (2001) Anal Chem 73:492–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee S, Tai Y (1999) Sens Actuators 73:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schilling E, Kamholz A, Yager P (2002) Anal Chem 74:1798–1804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nevill JT, Cooper R, Dueck M, Breslauer DN, Lee LP (2007) Lab Chip 7:1689–1695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cady NC, Stelick S, Batt CA (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 19(59):59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breadmore MC, Wolfe K, Arcibal IG, Leung WK, Dickson D, Giordano BC, Power ME, Ferrance JP, Feldman S, Norris PM, Landers JP (2003) Anal Chem 75:1880–1886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Torielloa NM, Douglas ES, Thaitrong N, Hsiao SC, Francis MB, Bertozzi CR, Mathiesa RA (2008) Proc Natl Aacad Sci USA 105:20173–20178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Easley CJ, Karlinsey JM, Bienvenue JM, Legendre LA, Roper MG, Feldman SH, Hughes MA, Hewett EL, Merkel TJ, Ferrance JP, Landers JP (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:19272–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang FC, Liao CS, Lee GB (2006) Electrophoresis 27:3297–3305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Prakash AR, Adamia S, Sieben V, Pilarski P, Pilarski LM, Backhouse CJ (2006) Sens Actuators B Chem 113:398–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cheng JY, Hsieh CJ, Chuang YC, Hsieh JR (2005) Analyst 130:931–940CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liao CS, Lee GB, Wu JJ, Chang CC, Hsieh TM, Huang FC, Luo CH (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1341–1348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang CS, Xu JL, Ma WL, Zheng WL (2006) Biotechnol Adv 24:243–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hui WC, Yobas L, Samper VD, Heng CK, Liwa S, Ji H, Chena Y, Cong L, Li J, Limb TM (2007) Sens Actuators A 133:335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoffman D, O’Brien J, Brennan D (2008) Sens Actuators B 12(2):653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gao X, Nie S (2004) Anal Chem 76(8):2406–2410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cao YC, Huang ZL, Liu TC, Wang HQ, Zhu XX, Wang Z, Zhao YD, Liu MX, Luo QM (2006) Anal Biochem 351:193–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ymeti A, Greve J, Lambeck PV, Wink T, van Hövell S, Beumer TA, Wijn RR, Heideman RG, Subramaniam V, Kanger JS (2007) Nano Lett 7(2):394–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pappaert K, Van Mummelen P, Vanderhoeven J, Dutta B, Clicq D, Baron GV, Desmet G (2003) J Chromatogr A 1014:1–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pappaert K, Van Mummelen P, Vanderhoeven J, Baron GV, Desmet G (2003) Chem Eng Sci 58:4921–4930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Persa H, Chin CD, Mongkolwisetwara P, Lee BW, Wang J, Sia SK (2008) Lab Chip 8:2062–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hu G, Gao Y, Li D (2007) Biosens Bioelectron 22:1403–1409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoffman O, Voirin G, Niedermann P, Manz A (2002) Anal Chem 20:5243–5250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sigurdson M, Wang D, Meinhart CD (2005) Lab Chip 5:1366–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Golden JP, Floyd-Smith TM, Mott DR, Ligler FS (2007) Biosens Bioelectron 22:2763–2767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Peterson AW, Heaton RJ, Georgiadis RM (2001) Nucleic Acids Res 29(24):5163–5168CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brennan D, Lambkin P, Moore EJ, Galvin P (2008) IEEE Sens J 8(5):536–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    ATIK Instruments (2009) ATIK Instruments products. http://www.atik-instruments.com/html/products.html. Accessed 12 March 2009
  47. 47.
    Starlight Express Ltd. (2009) Starlight express products. http://www.starlight-xpress.co.uk. Accessed 12 March 2009
  48. 48.
    SensL the low light company (2009) SensL products. http://www.sensl.com/Technology/. Accessed 12 March 2009
  49. 49.
    Tung YC, Zhang M, Lin CT, Kurabayashi K, Skerlos SJ (2004) Sens Actuators B Chem 98:356–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chabinyc ML, Chiu DT, McDonald JC, Stroock AD, Christian JF, Karger AM, Whitesides GM (2001) Anal Chem 73:4491–4498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hofmann O, Miller P, Sullivan P, Jones TS, deMello JC, Bradley DC, deMello AJ (2005) Sens Actuators B 106:878–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mavrogiannopoulou E, Petrou PS, Kakabakos SE, Misiakos K (2009) Biosens Bioelectron 24:1341–1347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Roulet JC, Volkel R, Herzig, HP, Verpoorte E, de Rooij NF, Dandliker R (2001) J Microelectromech Syst 10(4):482–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Llobera A, Demming S, Wilke R, Büttgenbach S (2007) Lab Chip 7:1560–1565CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Luminex Corporation (2009) Xmap technology. http://www.luminexcorp.com/technology/index.html. Accessed 12 March 2009
  56. 56.
    Affymetrix Inc. (2009) Genome Wide Association. http://www.affymetrix.com/products_services/research_solutions/methods/genome-wide-association.affx. Accessed 12 March 2009
  57. 57.
    Nam JM, Steova S, Mirkin CA (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:5932–5933CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ramsay G (1998) Nat Biotechnol 16:40–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Heller MJ (2002) Annu Rev Biomed Eng 4:129–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stoughton RB (2005) Annu Rev Biochem 74:53–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wei Y, Cao C, Jin R, Mirkin CA (2002) Science 297:1536–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sowell J, Strekowski L, Patonay G (2002) J Biomed Opt 7:571–578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schmidt H, Hawkins AR (2008) J Microfluidics Nanofluidics 4:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wang J, Engelund M, Gotsæd T, Perch-Nielsen IR, Mogensen KB, Snakenborg D, Kutter JP, Wolff A (2004) Lab Chip 4:372–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seo J, Lee LP (2004) Sens Actuators B Chem 99:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chediak JA, Luo Z, Seo J, Cheung N, Lee LP, Sands TD (2004) Sens Actuators A 111:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thrush E, Levi O, Ha W, Wang K, Smith SJ, Harris JS (2003) J Chromatogr A 1013:103–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yeh HC, Puleo CM, Lim TC, Ho YP, Giza PE, Huang RCC, Wang TH (2006) Nucleic Acids Res 34:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kim S, Chen L, Lee S, Seong GH, Choo J, Lee EK, Oh C, Lee S (2007) Anal Sci 23:401–405Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Liu AQ, Huang HJ, Chin LK ,Yu YF, Li XC (2008) Anal Bioanal Chem 391:2443–2452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fan X, White IM, Shopova SI, Zhu H, Suter JD, Sun Y (2008) Anal Chim Acta 620:8–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heideman RG, Lambeck PV (1999) Sens Actuators B Chem 61:100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sánchez del Rio J, Carrascosa LG, Blanco FG, Moreno M (2007) Proc SPIE 6477:64771BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sepúlvedal B, Sánchez del Río J, Moreno M, Blanco FJ, Mayora K, Domínguez C, Lechuga LM (2006) J Opt A Pure Appl Opt 8:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hsu SH, Huang YT (2005) J Lightwave Technol 23(12):4200–4207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bernini R, Testa G, Zeni L, Sarro PM (2008) Appl Phys Lett 93:011106. doi: 10.1063/1.2957031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    GE Healthcare (2009) Label free interaction analysis in real time. http://www.biacore.com/lifesciences/introduction/index.html. Accessed 12 March 2009
  78. 78.
    Sensata Technologies (2009) Spreeta SPR sensors. http://www.sensata.com/sensors/spreeta-analytical-sensor-highlights.htm. Accessed 12 March 2009
  79. 79.
    Chinowsky TM, Grow MS, Johnston KS, Nelson K, Edwards T, Fu E, Yager P (2007) Biosens Bioelectron 22:2208–2215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee HJ, Goodrich TJ, Corn RM (2001) Anal Chem 73(22):5525–5531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nelson BP, Grimsrud TE, Liles MR, Goodman RM, Corn RM (2001) Anal Chem 73(1):1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    He L, Musick MD, Nicewarner SR, Salinas FG, Benkovic SJ, Natan MJ, Keating CD (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122(38):9071–9077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hayashida M, Yamaguchi A, Misawa H (2005) Jpn J Appl Phys 44:1544–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lindquist NC, Lesuffleur A, Im H, Oh SH (2009) Lab Chip 9:382–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Measor P, Seballos L, Yin D, Zhang JZ, Lunt EJ, Hawkins AR, Schmidt H (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90(21):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Taton TA, Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL (2000) Science 289:1757–1760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vollmer F, Arnold S (2008) Nat Methods 5(7):591–596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Armani AM, Kulkarni RP, Fraser SE, Flagan RC, Vahala KJ (2007) Science 317:783–786CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vollmer F, Arnold S, Braun D, Teraoko I, Libchaber A (2003) Biophys J 85:1974–1979CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yang G, White IM, Fan X (2008) Sens Actuators B 133:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chao CY,.Fung W,Goa LJ (2006) IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 12(1):1438–1449Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mandal S, Erickson D (2008) Opt Express 16(3):1623–1631CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Li M, He F, Liao Q, Liu J, Xu L, Jiang L, Song Y, Wang S, Zhu D (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:7258–7262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dodson JM, Feldstein MJ, Leatzow DM, Flack LK, Golden JP, Ligler FS (2001) Anal Chem 73:3776–3780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tsai JH, Lin LW (2002) J Microelectromech Syst 11:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bohm S, Olthuis W, Bergveld P (1999) Sens Actuators A 77:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Beebe DJ, Moore JS, Bauer JM, Yu Q, Liu RH, Devadoss C, Jo BH (2000) Nature 404:588–590CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Liu RH, Yu Q, Beebe DJ (2002) J Microelectromech Syst 11:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Burns MA, Johnson BN, Brahmasandra SN, Handique K, Webster JR, Krishnan M, Sammarco TS, Man PM, Jones D, Heldsinger D, Mastrangelo CH, Burke DT (1998) Science 282:484–487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zeng SL, Chen CH, Santiago JG, Chen JR, Zare RN, Tripp JA, Svec F, Frechet JM (2002) Sens Actuators B 82:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Woollery AT, Hadley D, Landre P, deMello AJ, Mathies RA, Northrup MA (1996) Anal Chem 68:4081–4086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Anderson RC (2000) Nucleic Acids Res 28:e60CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kartalov EP, Quake SR (2004) Nucleic Acids Res 32:2873–2879CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Liu RH, Yang J, Lenigk R, Bonanno J, Grodzinski P (2004) Anal Chem 76(7):1824–1831CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Huang SC, Lee GB, Chien FC, Chen SJ, Chen WJ, Yang MC (2006) J Micromech Microeng 16:1251–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lei KF, Law WC, Suen YK, Li WC,Yam Y, Ho H, Kong SK (2007) Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine. pp. 129–141Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Liu YJ, Yao DJ, Lin HD ,Chang WY, Chang HY (2008) J Micromech Microeng 18:1–7Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chang YH, Lee GB, Huang FC, Chen YY, Lin JL (2006) Biomed Microdevices 8:215–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wheeler AR, Moon H, Bird CA, Loo RR, Kim CJ, Loo JA, Garrell RL (2005) Anal Chem 77:534–540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Linder V, Sia SK, Whitesides GM (2005) Anal Chem 77:64–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Woolley AT, Lao K (1998) Anal Chem 70:684–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Colyer CL, Harrison D (1997) Electrophoresis 18:1733–1741CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Martin P, Matson D (1998) Proc SPIE 3515:172–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Glasgow IK, Beebe DJ, White VE (1999) Sens Mater 11(5):269–273Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Soper SA, Henry AC, Vaidya B, Galloway M, Wabuyele M, McCarley RL (2002) Anal Chim Acta 55:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Eddings MA, Johnson MA, Gale BK (2008) J Micromech Microeng 18:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lee S, Jiang Y (2001) Anal Chem 73:2048–2053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Locascio L, Perso (1999) J Chromathogr A 857:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zhang ZB, Luo Y, Wang XD, Zhang ZQ, Wang LD (2008) Ultrasonic bonding of polymer microfluidic chips. Paper presented at the international conference on electronic packaging technology & high density packaging (ICEPT-HDP 2008)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chantal G, Khan M (2006) Anal Bioanal Chem 385:1351–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Desmond Brennan
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Justice
    • 1
  • Brian Corbett
    • 1
  • Tommie McCarthy
    • 2
  • Paul Galvin
    • 1
  1. 1.Tyndall National InstituteCo. CorkIreland
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryUniversity College, CorkCo. CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations