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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 394, Issue 3, pp 743–758 | Cite as

Critical evaluation of sample pretreatment techniques

  • Tuulia HyötyläinenEmail author
Review

Abstract

Sample preparation before chromatographic separation is the most time-consuming and error-prone part of the analytical procedure. Therefore, selecting and optimizing an appropriate sample preparation scheme is a key factor in the final success of the analysis, and the judicious choice of an appropriate procedure greatly influences the reliability and accuracy of a given analysis. The main objective of this review is to critically evaluate the applicability, disadvantages, and advantages of various sample preparation techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on extraction techniques suitable for both liquid and solid samples.

Figure

Miniaturised extraction techniques allow sensitive analysis of also small sample volumes.

Keywords

Sample preparation Extraction Fractionation Critical evaluation 

Abbreviations

D-HS

Dynamic head-space

GC

Gas chromatography

HCC-HS

High concentration capacity headspace techniques

HF

Hollow-fibre

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HS-SPME

Head-space solid-phase microextraction

HS-SBSE

Headspace sorptive extraction

HS-LPME

Headspace liquid-phase microextraction

INCAT

HS-SPDE, In-tube sorptive extraction

LC

Liquid chromatography

LLE

Liquid–liquid extraction

LPME

Liquid-phase microextraction

MAE

Microwave-assisted liquid extraction

MASE

Membrane-assisted extraction

MEPS

Microextraction with packed syringe

MESI

Membrane extraction sorbent interface

MS

Mass spectrometry

MSPD

Matrix solid-phase dispersion

PHWE

Pressurised hot water extraction

PLE

Pressurised-liquid extraction

PTV

Programmed-temperature vaporizer

SAE

Sonication-assisted liquid extraction

SBSE

Stir-bar sorptive extraction

SFE

Supercritical-fluid extraction

S-HS

Static head-space

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SLE

Solid-liquid extraction

SPME

Solid-phase microextraction

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maj and Tor Nessling FoundationHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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