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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 394, Issue 5, pp 1307–1317 | Cite as

Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamate insecticide residues in fruits

  • Apichai Santalad
  • Supalax Srijaranai
  • Rodjana Burakham
  • Jeremy D. Glennon
  • Richard L. Deming
Original Paper

Abstract

A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 non-ionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of carbamate insecticide residues (i.e., methomyl, propoxur, carbofuran, carbaryl, isoprocarb, and promecarb) in fruit samples. The optimum conditions of CPE were 1.5% (w/v) Triton X-114, 7.0% (w/v) NaCl and 20 min equilibrated at 45 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 270 nm, under gradient separation using methanol and 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the study conditions, six carbamate insecticides were successfully separated within 27 min. Good reproducibility was obtained with the relative standard deviation of <3% for retention time and <9% for peak area. Limits of detection in the studied fruit samples were in the range of 0.1–1.0 mg kg−1. No carbamate insecticides were detected in the studied fruit samples. The high recoveries of the spiked fruit samples were obtained in the range 80.0–107%. The CPE method has been shown to be a potential useful methodology for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environmental friendly.

Keywords

Cloud-point extraction Triton X-114 Carbamate insecticides Fruits High-performance liquid chromatography 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education and the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee (RGJ) Ph.D. Program (Grant No: PHD/0083/2549) for financial support of A. Santalad and S. Srijaranai. A. Santalad is grateful to Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Khon Kaen Campus through the staff development project for partial financial support. Finally, we are also grateful to the Commission on Higher Education (CHE) for financial support through the CHE-RES-RG project.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Apichai Santalad
    • 1
  • Supalax Srijaranai
    • 1
  • Rodjana Burakham
    • 1
  • Jeremy D. Glennon
    • 2
  • Richard L. Deming
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility (ABCRF)University College CorkCorkIreland
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of ScienceCalifornia State University FullertonFullertonUSA

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