Quantitative analysis of DHEA and androsterone in female urine: investigating the effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception and training on exercise-induced changes in young women

  • M.-L. Bayle
  • C. Enea
  • P. Goetinck
  • F. Lafay
  • N. Boisseau
  • B. Dugué
  • M.-M. Flament-Waton
  • M.-F. Grenier-Loustalot
Original Paper

Abstract

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolite androsterone (A) are natural steroids secreted in high quantities in human body. To assess the influence of oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle phase, and also physical exercise (acute and chronic such as training) on these metabolites excretions, a collection of 28 female urine specimens was organized. A three-extraction-step method was developed, and the analyses were performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry using deuterated 19-noretiocholanolone as the internal standard. Sample hydration state was found to be of great importance for kinetic studies, as it directly influenced the concentrations. No influence of menstrual cycle and training was found for androsterone and DHEA. However, oral contraceptive intake lowered DHEA excretion in urine and A seems to be slightly affected by exercise.

Keywords

Androsterone Dehydroepiandrosterone Doping Female physiology Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Physical exercise 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors thank the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the financial support.

References

  1. 1.
    Brown G, Vukovich M, Sharp R et al (1999) J Appl Physiol 87:2274–2283Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Igwebuike A, Irving BA, Bigelow ML et al (2008) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:534–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Villareal D, Holloszy J (2006) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:1003–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Labrie F, Luu-The V, Belanger A et al (2005) J Endocrinol 187:169–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Labrie F, Luu-The V, Labrie C et al (2000) Horm Res 54:218–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Young J, Couzinet B, Nahoul K et al (1997) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2578–2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arlt W, Callies F, van Vlijmen J et al (1999) N Engl J Med 341:1013–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dehennin L, Ferry M, Lafarge P et al (1998) Steroids 63:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Labrie F, Belanger A, Belanger P et al (2006) J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 99:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schlienger J, Perrin A, Goichot B (2002) Rev Med Interne 23:436–446Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dehennin L, Lafarge P, Dailly P et al (1996) J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 687:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bowers L (1999) Clin Chem 45:295–297Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    WADA (2004) TD2004EAAS http://www.wada.org
  14. 14.
    Cawley A, Flenker U (2008) J Mass Spectrom 43:854–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Flenker U, Guntner U, Schanzer W (2008) Steroids 73:408–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mareck U, Geyer H, Flenker U et al (2007) Eur J Mass Spectrom 13:419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Enea C, Boisseau N, Diaz V et al (2008) Steroids 73:1203–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vestergaard P (1978) Acta Endocrinol Suppl Copenh 217:96–120Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pujos E, Flament-Waton M, Goetinck P et al (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 380:524–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ueki M, Okano M (1999) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13:2237–2243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van de Kerkhof DH (2001) Steroid profiling in doping analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, p 124Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Callies F, Arlt W, Siekmann L et al (2000) Steroids 65:98–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buiarelli F, Coccioli F, Merolle M et al (2004) Analytica Chimica Acta 526:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grosse J, Anielski P, Hemmersbach P et al (2005) Steroids 70:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Van der Merwe PJ, Brobbelaar E, Yeowart D (2002) Recent Adv Doping Anal 10:253–259Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spencer K (1986) Ann Clin Biochem 23:1–25Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Enea C, Boisseau N, Bayle ML et al (2008) Scand J Med Sci Sports doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00877.x
  28. 28.
    de la Torre R, de la Torre X, Alía C et al (2001) Anal Biochem 289:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mareck U, Geyer H, Opfermann G et al (2008) J Mass Spectrom 43:877–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Anastassiades M, Mastovska K, Lehotay S (2003) J Chromatogr A 1015:163–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Erney D, Gillespie A, Gilvydis D (1993) J Chrom 638:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Poole C (2007) J Chromatogr A1158:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lemos D, Downs J, Urbanski H (2006) Mol Endocrinol 20:1164–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Labrie F, Belanger A, Luu-The V et al (1998) Steroids 63:322–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Narayanan S, Appleton H (1980) Clin Chem 26:1119–1126Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heavner D, Morgan W, Sears S et al (2006) J Pharm Biomed Anal 40:928–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thompson S, Barlow R, Wald N et al (1990) Clin Chim Acta 187:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ciardi M, Ciccoli R, Barbarulo M et al (1998) Recent Adv Doping Anal 6:97–104Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shamim W, Yousufuddin M, Bakhai A et al (2000) Ann Clin Biochem 37:770–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vermeulen A, Verdonck L (1976) Am J Obstet Gynecol 125:491–494Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Greco T, Graham C, Bancroft J et al (2007) Contraception 76:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mareck-Engelke U, Flenker U, Schanzer W (1996) Sport und Buch Strauss 139Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fern M, Rose D, Fern E (1978) Obstet Gynecol 51:541–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bonen A, Keizer H (1987) Int J Sports Med 8(Suppl 3):161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Velardo A, Pantaleoni M, Valerio L et al (1991) Exp Clin Endocrinol 97:99–101Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Keizer H, Janssen G, Menheere P et al (1989) Int J Sports Med 10(Suppl 3):139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.-L. Bayle
    • 1
  • C. Enea
    • 2
  • P. Goetinck
    • 1
  • F. Lafay
    • 1
  • N. Boisseau
    • 2
  • B. Dugué
    • 2
  • M.-M. Flament-Waton
    • 1
  • M.-F. Grenier-Loustalot
    • 1
  1. 1.Service Central d’Analyse (USR 59—CNRS)Echangeur de SolaizeSolaizeFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire des Adaptations Physiologiques aux Activités Physiques (EA3813)Université de PoitiersPoitiersFrance

Personalised recommendations