Methods for detection of GMOs in food and feed

  • Nelson Marmiroli
  • Elena Maestri
  • Mariolina Gullì
  • Alessio Malcevschi
  • Clelia Peano
  • Roberta Bordoni
  • Gianluca De BellisEmail author


This paper reviews aspects relevant to detection and quantification of genetically modified (GM) material within the feed/food chain. The GM crop regulatory framework at the international level is evaluated with reference to traceability and labelling. Current analytical methods for the detection, identification, and quantification of transgenic DNA in food and feed are reviewed. These methods include quantitative real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, and multiplex real-time PCR. Particular attention is paid to methods able to identify multiple GM events in a single reaction and to the development of microdevices and microsensors, though they have not been fully validated for application.


GMO traceability Regulation and legislation PCR methods Sensor and microsensor Validation of methods 



The authors acknowledge the contribution made by the EC FP5 and FP6 projects DNA-TRACK, TRACEBACK, PETER, and CoEXTRA (to NM), the NATO Science for Peace project 982498 (to NM), and the national projects PRIN 2006 (to NM) and FIRB Micran, RBNE01ZB7A (to GDB). The views expressed in this paper reflect those of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nelson Marmiroli
    • 1
  • Elena Maestri
    • 1
  • Mariolina Gullì
    • 1
  • Alessio Malcevschi
    • 1
  • Clelia Peano
    • 2
  • Roberta Bordoni
    • 2
  • Gianluca De Bellis
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, Division of Genetics and Environmental BiotechnologyUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Institute for Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council (ITB-CNR)Segrate (MI)Italy

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