Analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by liquid chromatography with negative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS): application to house dust
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Eight polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners of primary interest to the US EPA were separated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane column. BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209 were baseline-resolved under isocratic conditions in 92:8 methanol/water (v/v). Negative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (NI-APPI) with a toluene dopant produced precursor ions corresponding to [M–Br+O]– for the eight congeners studied. Each congener was quantified by tandem mass spectrometry through a unique multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition. On-column limits of detection were between 2.4 and 27.8 pg for the eight congeners studied, with an intra-day method precision of 9%. The LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS method was validated for the analysis of the eight PBDE congeners in NIST SRM 2585 (Organics in House Dust). Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with subsequent LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS analysis afforded quantitative recovery for all eight PBDE congeners with recoveries ranging from 92.7 to 113%. The liquid-phase separation of the LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS method is not prone to the thermal degradation issues that plague splitless GC based analyses of highly brominated PBDEs such as BDE-209.
KeywordsNegative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (NI-APPI) Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) Dust Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)
We are grateful to Michelle Schantz at NIST for providing SRM 2585. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers CHE-0718530 and CHE-0619394.
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