Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 391, Issue 4, pp 1459–1468 | Cite as

Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil

  • Devanir AvigoJr.
  • Ana F. L. Godoi
  • Paulo R. Janissek
  • Yaroslava Makarovska
  • Agnieszka Krata
  • Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak
  • Balint Alfoldy
  • René Van Grieken
  • Ricardo H. M. Godoi
Original Paper

Abstract

The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels.

Keywords

Indoor environment Particulate matter Schools Lung deposition 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devanir AvigoJr.
    • 1
  • Ana F. L. Godoi
    • 1
  • Paulo R. Janissek
    • 1
  • Yaroslava Makarovska
    • 2
  • Agnieszka Krata
    • 2
  • Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak
    • 3
  • Balint Alfoldy
    • 4
  • René Van Grieken
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. M. Godoi
    • 1
  1. 1.Positivo UniversityCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Molecular Science Institute, School of ChemistryUniversity of the WitwatersrandWitsSouth Africa
  4. 4.Health Physics DepartmentKFKI Atomic Energy Research InstituteBudapestHungary

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