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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 391, Issue 1, pp 33–57 | Cite as

Characterisation of historical organic dyestuffs by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

  • Erwin RosenbergEmail author
Review

Abstract

This review discusses the characterisation of natural organic dyestuffs of historical interest by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The structures of the most important natural organic dyestuffs traditionally used are presented and discussed from the perspective of their analytical chemical determination. The practical aspects of the determination of this inhomogeneous range of compounds with different structures, such as anthraquinones, flavonoids, indigoids or tannins, are discussed with their implications for sample preparation, liquid chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. The particular focus of this review is the discussion of the mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the different classes of natural organic dyestuffs, which in the ideal case allow the identification of the dyestuff actually used, and thereby provide a key to the better characterisation and understanding of historical objects dyed with natural organic dyestuffs.

Figure

LC-MS allows characterisation of natural dyestuff constituents: the MS spectrum of alizarin is superimposed over a photo of a textile coloured using this red dye

Keywords

Historical dyestuffs Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry Flavonoids Anthraquinoides Indigoids Tannins 

Abbreviations

APCI

atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation

APPI

atmospheric pressure photoionisation

CE

capillary electrophoresis

CEC

capillary electrochromatography

CID

collision-induced dissociation

DAD

diode array detection

ESI

electrospray ionisation

FAB

fast atom bombardment

FLD

fluorescence detection

GC-MS

gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

ICR-FT-MS

ion cyclotron resonance–Fourier transform mass spectrometry

IT-TOF-MS

ion trap–time-of-flight mass spectrometry

LC-MS

liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

MAE

microwave-assisted extraction

q-TOF

quadrupole–time-of-flight MS

SEM-EDS

scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy

SF-MS

sector field mass spectrometer

SIM

selected ion monitoring (MS)

SRM

selected reaction monitoring mode (MS)

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

TOF-MS

time-of-flight mass spectrometer

UAE

ultrasonically assisted extraction

UV

ultraviolet

Vis

visible

XRF

x-ray fluorscence

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Chemical Technologies and AnalyticsVienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

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